The long and the short of it : long-styled florets are associated with higher outcrossing rate in Senecio vulgaris and result from delayed self-pollen germination
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Background: It has been reported that some plants of the self-compatible species, Senecio vulgaris, produce capitula containing long-styled florets which fail to set seed when left to self-pollinate, although readily set seed when self-pollinated by hand. Aims: To determine if production of long-styled florets is associated with higher outcrossing rate in S. vulgaris, and whether long-styles occur in non-pollinated florets, whereas short-styles are present in self-pollinated florets. Methods: The frequency of long-styled florets was compared in the radiate and non-radiate variants of S. vulgaris, known to exhibit higher and lower outcrossing rates, respectively. In addition, style length was compared in emasculated florets that were either self-pollinated or left non-pollinated. Results: Long-styled florets were more frequent in the higher outcrossing radiate variant. Following emasculation, long styles occurred in non-pollinated florets, while short styles were present in self-pollinated florets. The two variants did not differ in style length within the non-pollinated or within the self-pollinated floret categories. Conclusions: A high frequency of long-styled florets is associated with higher outcrossing rate in S. vulgaris and results from delayed self-pollination and pollen germination on stigmas.
Irwin , J A , Ashton , P A , Bretagnolle , F & Abbott , R J 2016 , ' The long and the short of it : long-styled florets are associated with higher outcrossing rate in Senecio vulgaris and result from delayed self-pollen germination ' Plant Ecology & Diversity , vol 9 , no. 2 , pp. 159-165 . DOI: 10.1080/17550874.2016.1181116
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Plant Ecology & Diversity
© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The research reported in this article was funded in part by the Natural Environment Research Council under grants: GR3/6203A - Male competition and outcrossing rate in a hermaphrodite plant. GR9/1782A – Genomic analysis of wild hybrid derivatives of Senecio squalidus x S. vulgaris using in situ hybridization.
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