Spatial resolution and refractive index contrast of resonant photonic crystal surfaces for biosensing
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By depositing a resolution test pattern on top of a Si3N4 photonic crystal resonant surface, we have measured the dependence of spatial resolution on refractive index contrast Δn. Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10-2. We also compare 1-D and 2-D gratings, taking into account different incidence polarizations, leading to a better understanding of the excitation and propagation of the resonant modes in these structures, as well as how this contributes to the spatial resolution. At Δn = 0.077, we observe resolutions of 2 and 6 μm parallel to and perpendicular to the grooves of a 1-D grating, respectively, and show that for polarized illumination of a 2-D grating, resolution remains asymmetrical. Illumination of a 2-D grating at 45 degrees results in symmetric resolution. At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn <0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device. In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution.
Triggs , G J , Fischer , M , Stellinga , D , Scullion , M G , Evans , G J O & Krauss , T F 2015 , ' Spatial resolution and refractive index contrast of resonant photonic crystal surfaces for biosensing ' IEEE Photonics Journal , vol 7 , no. 3 , 6801810 . DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2015.2435699
IEEE Photonics Journal
This is an Open Access article. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. For more information, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
This work was supported in part by the EPSRC of U.K. under Grant EP/J01771X/1 (Structured Light), by the BBSRC under Grant BB/L0181160/1 [Label-free, Real-time, Spatial resolution (LRS) immunoassay], and by the Wellcome Trust under Grant 097829/Z/11/A.
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