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dc.contributor.authorGunn, M. D.
dc.contributor.authorCousins, Claire Rachel
dc.identifier.citationGunn , M D & Cousins , C R 2016 , ' Mars surface context cameras past, present, and future ' Earth and Space Science , vol. 3 , no. 4 , pp. 144-162 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 241922185
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 4b8252c3-ad4d-4d10-9a2c-7ab937ccd499
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: urn:70ba5df3a53f5d91b1cfa1e02b7cc455
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85025441453
dc.descriptionMatthew Gunn and Claire Cousins are Co-Investigators on the European Space Agency ExoMars Panoramic Camera instrument (PI Andrew Coates; MSSL/University College London, London, United Kingdom). C Cousins is funded by the Royal Society of Edinburgh on a Personal Research Fellowship. Matthew Gunn acknowledges UK Space Agency grants ST/L001454/1, ST/N003349/1 and ST/N006410/1.en
dc.description.abstractMars has been the focus of robotic space exploration since the 1960s, in which time there have been over 40 missions, some successful, some not. Camera systems have been a core component of all instrument payloads sent to the Martian surface, harnessing some combination of monochrome, color, multispectral, and stereo imagery. Together, these datasets provide the geological context to a mission, which over the decades has included the characterization and spatial mapping of geological units and associated stratigraphy, charting active surface processes such as dust devils and water ice sublimation, and imaging the robotic manipulation of samples via scoops (Viking), drills (Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity), and grinders (Mars Exploration Rovers). Through the decades, science context imaging has remained an integral part of increasingly advanced analytical payloads, with continual advances in spatial and spectral resolution, radiometric and geometric calibration, and image analysis techniques. Mars context camera design has encompassed major technological shifts, from single photomultiplier tube detectors to megapixel charged-couple-devices, and from multichannel to Bayer filter color imaging. Here we review the technological capability and evolution of science context imaging instrumentation resulting from successful surface missions to Mars, and those currently in development for planned future missions.
dc.relation.ispartofEarth and Space Scienceen
dc.rights© 2016, The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License (, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.en
dc.subjectG Geography. Anthropology. Recreationen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQA75 Electronic computers. Computer scienceen
dc.titleMars surface context cameras past, present, and futureen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Earth and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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