Phylogeny and phylogeography of a recent HIV-1 subtype F outbreak among men who have sex with men in Spain deriving from a cluster with a wide geographic circulation in Western Europe
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We recently reported the rapid expansion of an HIV-1 subtype F cluster among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the region of Galicia, Northwest Spain. Here we update this outbreak, analyze near full-length genomes, determine phylogenetic relationships, and estimate its origin. For this study, we used sequences of HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase and env V3 region, and for 17 samples, near full-length genome sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses were performed via maximum likelihood. Locations and times of most recent common ancestors were estimated using Bayesian inference. Among samples analyzed by us, 100 HIV-1 F1 subsubtype infections of monophyletic origin were diagnosed in Spain, including 88 in Galicia and 12 in four other regions. Most viruses (n = 90) grouped in a subcluster (Galician subcluster), while 7 from Valladolid (Central Spain) grouped in another subcluster. At least 94 individuals were sexually-infected males and at least 71 were MSM. Seventeen near full-length genomes were uniformly of F1 subsubtype. Through similarity searches and phylogenetic analyses, we identified 18 viruses from four other Western European countries [Switzerland (n = 8), Belgium (n = 5), France (n = 3), and United Kingdom (n = 2)] and one from Brazil, from samples collected in 2005?2011, which branched within the subtype F cluster, outside of both Spanish subclusters, most of them corresponding to recently infected individuals. The most probable geographic origin and age of the Galician subcluster was Ferrol, Northwest Galicia, around 2007, while the Western European cluster probably emerged in Switzerland around 2002. In conclusion, a recently expanded HIV-1 subtype F cluster, the largest non-subtype B cluster reported in Western Europe, continues to spread among MSM in Spain; this cluster is part of a larger cluster with a wide geographic circulation in diverse Western European countries.
Delgado , E , Cuevas , M T , Domínguez , F , Vega , Y , Cabello , M , Fernández-García , A , Pérez-Losada , M , Castro , M Á , Montero , V , Sánchez , M , Mariño , A , Álvarez , H , Ordóñez , P , Ocampo , A , Miralles , C , Pérez-Castro , S , López-Álvarez , M J , Rodríguez , R , Trigo , M , Diz-Arén , J , Hinojosa , C , Bachiller , P , Hernáez-Crespo , S , Cisterna , R , Garduño , E , Pérez-Álvarez , L & Thomson , M M 2015 , ' Phylogeny and phylogeography of a recent HIV-1 subtype F outbreak among men who have sex with men in Spain deriving from a cluster with a wide geographic circulation in Western Europe ' PLoS One , vol 10 , no. 11 , e0143325 , pp. 1-18 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143325
© 2015 Delgado et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This work received support from the Dirección General de Farmacia, Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad, Government of Spain, grant EC11-272; European Network of Excellence EUROPRISE (Rational Design of HIV Vaccines and Microbicides), grant LSHP-CT-2006-037611; European Research Infrastructures for Poverty Related Diseases (EURIPRED). Seventh Framework Programme: FP7-Capacities-infrastructures-2012-1, grant agreement 312661; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Subdirección General de Evaluación, and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Plan Nacional I + D + I, through project RD12/0017/0026; Consellería de Sanidade, Government of Galicia, Spain (MVI 1291/08); and the Osakidetza-Servicio Vasco de Salud, Basque Country, Spain (MVI-1255-08). Marcos Pérez-Losada was supported by a DC D-CFAR Research Award from the District of Columbia Developmental Center for AIDS Research (P30AI087714) and by an University Facilitating Fund award from George Washington University. Aurora Fernández-García is supported by CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.