Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard
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Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter quasiparticles formed by strongly interacting photons and excitons (electron-hole pairs) in semiconductor microcavities. They have emerged as a robust solid-state platform for next-generation optoelectronic applications as well as for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics. Importantly, exciton-polaritons are a profoundly open (that is, non-Hermitian) quantum system, which requires constant pumping of energy and continuously decays, releasing coherent radiation. Thus, the exciton-polaritons always exist in a balanced potential landscape of gain and loss. However, the inherent non-Hermitian nature of this potential has so far been largely ignored in exciton-polariton physics. Here we demonstrate that non-Hermiticity dramatically modifies the structure of modes and spectral degeneracies in exciton-polariton systems, and, therefore, will affect their quantum transport, localization and dynamical properties. Using a spatially structured optical pump, we create a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard-a two-dimensional area enclosed by a curved potential barrier. Eigenmodes of this billiard exhibit multiple non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies, known as exceptional points. Such points can cause remarkable wave phenomena, such as unidirectional transport, anomalous lasing/absorption and chiral modes. By varying parameters of the billiard, we observe crossing and anti-crossing of energy levels and reveal the non-trivial topological modal structure exclusive to non-Hermitian systems. We also observe mode switching and a topological Berry phase for a parameter loop encircling the exceptional point. Our findings pave the way to studies of non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of exciton-polaritons, which may uncover novel operating principles for polariton-based devices.
Gao , T , Estrecho , E , Bliokh , K Y , Liew , T C H , Fraser , M D , Brodbeck , S , Kamp , M , Schneider , C , Höfling , S , Yamamoto , Y , Nori , F , Kivshar , Y S , Truscott , A G , Dall , R G & Ostrovskaya , E A 2015 , ' Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard ' Nature , vol 526 , no. 7574 , pp. 554-558 . DOI: 10.1038/nature15522
Copyright 2015 the Authors. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature15522
This research was supported by the Australian Research Council, the ImPACT Program of the Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan), the RIKEN iTHES Project, the MURI Center for Dynamic Magneto-Optics, a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (type A), and the State of Bavaria.