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dc.contributor.authorCurrie, Stephen Paul
dc.contributor.authorCombes, Denis
dc.contributor.authorScott, Nicholas William
dc.contributor.authorSimmers, John
dc.contributor.authorSillar, Keith Thomas
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-05T13:30:04Z
dc.date.available2016-04-05T13:30:04Z
dc.date.issued2016-03
dc.identifier.citationCurrie , S P , Combes , D , Scott , N W , Simmers , J & Sillar , K T 2016 , ' A behaviorally related developmental switch in nitrergic modulation of locomotor rhythmogenesis in larval Xenopus tadpoles ' , Journal of Neurophysiology , vol. 115 , no. 3 , pp. 1446-1457 . https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00283.2015en
dc.identifier.issn0022-3077
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 240276946
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6afa1735-38d4-4e99-b185-d1786b20a0bb
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84984856736
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000376057400025
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-0171-3814/work/64393761
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/8559
dc.descriptionSupported by PICS (Projet International de Coopération Scientifique) of the French CNRS and a LabEx BRAIN Visiting Professorship to KTS. SPC was a BBSRC research student. NWS was an MPhil student supported in part by the E & RS Research Fund of the University of St Andrews.en
dc.description.abstractLocomotor control requires functional flexibility to support an animal's full behavioral repertoire. This flexibility is partly endowed by neuromodulators, allowing neural networks to generate a range of motor output configurations. In hatchling Xenopus tadpoles, before the onset of free-swimming behavior, the gaseous modulator nitric oxide (NO) inhibits locomotor output, shortening swim episodes and decreasing swim cycle frequency. While populations of nitrergic neurons are already present in the tadpole's brain stem at hatching, neurons positive for the NO-synthetic enzyme, NO synthase, subsequently appear in the spinal cord, suggesting additional as yet unidentified roles for NO during larval development. Here, we first describe the expression of locomotor behavior during the animal's change from an early sessile to a later free-swimming lifestyle and then compare the effects of NO throughout tadpole development. We identify a discrete switch in nitrergic modulation from net inhibition to overall excitation, coincident with the transition to free-swimming locomotion. Additionally, we show in isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparations of older larvae that NO's excitatory effects are manifested as an increase in the probability of spontaneous swim episode occurrence, as found previously for the neurotransmitter dopamine, but that these effects are mediated within the brain stem. Moreover, while the effects of NO and dopamine are similar, the two modulators act in parallel rather than NO operating serially by modulating dopaminergic signaling. Finally, NO's activation of neurons in the brain stem also leads to the release of NO in the spinal cord that subsequently contributes to NO's facilitation of swimming.
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Neurophysiologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en_US)en
dc.subjectLocomotionen
dc.subjectTadpoleen
dc.subjectDevelopmenten
dc.subjectNitric oxideen
dc.subjectModulationen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectNDASen
dc.subjectBDCen
dc.subject.lccBFen
dc.titleA behaviorally related developmental switch in nitrergic modulation of locomotor rhythmogenesis in larval Xenopus tadpolesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00283.2015
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden


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