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dc.contributor.authorKühl, Hjalmar S.
dc.contributor.authorKalan, Ammie K.
dc.contributor.authorArandjelovic, Mimi
dc.contributor.authorAubert, Floris
dc.contributor.authorD’Auvergne, Lucy
dc.contributor.authorGoedmakers, Annemarie
dc.contributor.authorJones, Sorrel
dc.contributor.authorKehoe, Laura
dc.contributor.authorRegnaut, Sebastien
dc.contributor.authorTickle, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorTon, Els
dc.contributor.authorvan Schijndel, Joost
dc.contributor.authorAbwe, Ekwoge E.
dc.contributor.authorAngedakin, Samuel
dc.contributor.authorAgbor, Anthony
dc.contributor.authorAyimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk
dc.contributor.authorBailey, Emma
dc.contributor.authorBessone, Mattia
dc.contributor.authorBonnet, Matthieu
dc.contributor.authorBrazolla, Gregory
dc.contributor.authorBuh, Valentine Ebua
dc.contributor.authorChancellor, Rebecca
dc.contributor.authorCipoletta, Chloe
dc.contributor.authorCohen, Heather
dc.contributor.authorCorogenes, Katherine
dc.contributor.authorCoupland, Charlotte
dc.contributor.authorCurran, Bryan
dc.contributor.authorDeschner, Tobias
dc.contributor.authorDierks, Karsten
dc.contributor.authorDieguez, Paula
dc.contributor.authorDilambaka, Emmanuel
dc.contributor.authorDiotoh, Orume
dc.contributor.authorDowd, Dervla
dc.contributor.authorDunn, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorEshuis, Henk
dc.contributor.authorFernandez, Rumen
dc.contributor.authorGinath, Yisa
dc.contributor.authorHart, John
dc.contributor.authorHedwig, Daniela
dc.contributor.authorTer Heegde, Martijn
dc.contributor.authorHicks, Thurston Cleveland
dc.contributor.authorImong, Inaoyom
dc.contributor.authorJeffery, Kathryn J.
dc.contributor.authorJunker, Jessica
dc.contributor.authorKadam, Parag
dc.contributor.authorKambi, Mohamed
dc.contributor.authorKienast, Ivonne
dc.contributor.authorKujirakwinja, Deo
dc.contributor.authorLangergraber, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorLapeyre, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorLapuente, Juan
dc.contributor.authorLee, Kevin
dc.contributor.authorLeinert, Vera
dc.contributor.authorMeier, Amelia
dc.contributor.authorMaretti, Giovanna
dc.contributor.authorMarrocoli, Sergio
dc.contributor.authorMbi, Tanyi Julius
dc.contributor.authorMihindou, Vianet
dc.contributor.authorMoebius, Yasmin
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, David
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Bethan
dc.contributor.authorMulindahabi, Felix
dc.contributor.authorMurai, Mizuki
dc.contributor.authorNiyigabae, Protais
dc.contributor.authorNormand, Emma
dc.contributor.authorNtare, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorOrmsby, Lucy Jayne
dc.contributor.authorPiel, Alex
dc.contributor.authorPruetz, Jill
dc.contributor.authorRundus, Aaron
dc.contributor.authorSanz, Crickette
dc.contributor.authorSommer, Volker
dc.contributor.authorStewart, Fiona
dc.contributor.authorTagg, Nikki
dc.contributor.authorVanleeuwe, Hilde
dc.contributor.authorVergnes, Virginie
dc.contributor.authorWillie, Jacob
dc.contributor.authorWittig, Roman Martin
dc.contributor.authorZuberbuehler, Klaus
dc.contributor.authorBoesch, Christophe
dc.identifier.citationKühl , H S , Kalan , A K , Arandjelovic , M , Aubert , F , D’Auvergne , L , Goedmakers , A , Jones , S , Kehoe , L , Regnaut , S , Tickle , A , Ton , E , van Schijndel , J , Abwe , E E , Angedakin , S , Agbor , A , Ayimisin , E A , Bailey , E , Bessone , M , Bonnet , M , Brazolla , G , Buh , V E , Chancellor , R , Cipoletta , C , Cohen , H , Corogenes , K , Coupland , C , Curran , B , Deschner , T , Dierks , K , Dieguez , P , Dilambaka , E , Diotoh , O , Dowd , D , Dunn , A , Eshuis , H , Fernandez , R , Ginath , Y , Hart , J , Hedwig , D , Ter Heegde , M , Hicks , T C , Imong , I , Jeffery , K J , Junker , J , Kadam , P , Kambi , M , Kienast , I , Kujirakwinja , D , Langergraber , K , Lapeyre , V , Lapuente , J , Lee , K , Leinert , V , Meier , A , Maretti , G , Marrocoli , S , Mbi , T J , Mihindou , V , Moebius , Y , Morgan , D , Morgan , B , Mulindahabi , F , Murai , M , Niyigabae , P , Normand , E , Ntare , N , Ormsby , L J , Piel , A , Pruetz , J , Rundus , A , Sanz , C , Sommer , V , Stewart , F , Tagg , N , Vanleeuwe , H , Vergnes , V , Willie , J , Wittig , R M , Zuberbuehler , K & Boesch , C 2016 , ' Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 6 , 22219 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 241386032
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 09ebc216-19fe-405e-af08-3fe012bae903
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:2249E41C176F1A8ADD59573C735DC1EB
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84976901350
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8378-088X/work/64360696
dc.descriptionThe authors would like to thank the Max Planck Society and Krekeler Foundation for generous funding of the Pan African Programme.en
dc.description.abstractThe study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright 2016 the Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleChimpanzee accumulative stone throwingen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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