Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorMacfarlane, Nicholas
dc.contributor.authorHowland, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorJensen, Frants
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.identifier.citationMacfarlane , N , Howland , J , Jensen , F & Tyack , P L 2015 , ' A 3D stereo camera system for precisely positioning animals in space and time ' , Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , vol. 69 , no. 4 , pp. 685-693 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 172090190
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3448963a-a371-4d19-b5cf-25c79b2fe62d
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000351235100018
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84925485671
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887865
dc.descriptionPLT was supported by the Scottish Funding Council (grant HR09011) through the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland.en
dc.description.abstractHere, we describe a portable stereo camera system that integrates a GPS receiver, an attitude sensor and 3D stereo photogrammetry to rapidly estimate the position of multiple animals in space and time. We demonstrate the performance of the system during a field test by simultaneously tracking the individual positions of six long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas. In shore-based accuracy trials, a system with a 50-cm stereo baseline had an average range estimation error of 0.09 m at a 5-m distance increasing up to 3.2 at 50 m. The system is especially useful in field situations where it is necessary to follow groups of animals travelling over relatively long distances and time periods whilst obtaining individual positions with high spatial and temporal resolution (up to 8 Hz). These positions provide quantitative estimates of a variety of key parameters and indicators for behavioural studies such as inter-animal distances, group dispersion, speed and heading. This system can additionally be integrated with other techniques such as archival tags, photo-identification methods or acoustic playback experiments to facilitate fieldwork investigating topics ranging from natural social behaviour to how animals respond to anthropogenic disturbance. By grounding observations in quantitative metrics, the system can characterize fine-scale behaviour or detect changes as a result of disturbance that might otherwise be difficult to observe.
dc.relation.ispartofBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiologyen
dc.rightsCopyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015. The final publication is available at Springer via
dc.subjectGroup cohesionen
dc.subjectCollective behaviouren
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.titleA 3D stereo camera system for precisely positioning animals in space and timeen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record