Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of activity budgets in sympatric grey and harbour seals
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Investigation of activity budgets in relation to seasonal, intrinsic (age, sex) and extrinsic (time of day, spatial) covariates enables an understanding of how such covariates shape behavioural strategies. However, conducting such investigations in the wild is challenging, because of the required large sample size of individuals across the annual cycle, and difficulties in categorising behavioural states and analysing the resulting individual-referenced and serially correlated data. In this study, from telemetry tags deployed on 63 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and 126 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) we used behavioural data, and movement data within a Bayesian state-space model (SSM), to define population-level activity budgets around Britain. Using generalised estimating equations (GEEs) we then examined how time spent in four states (resting on land (hauled out), resting at sea, foraging and travelling) was influenced by seasonal, intrinsic and extrinsic covariates. We present and discuss the following key findings. (1) We found no evidence that regional variation in foraging effort was linked to regional population trajectories in harbour seals. (2) Grey seals demonstrated sex-specific seasonal differences in their activity budgets, independent from those related to reproductive costs. (3) In these sympatric species there was evidence of temporal separation in time hauled out, but not in time foraging. (4) In both species, time spent resting at sea was separated into inshore (associated with tidal haul out availability) and offshore areas. Time spent resting at sea and on land was interchangeable to some extent, suggesting a degree of overlap in their functionality. This may result in a relaxation of the constraints associated with a central place foraging strategy. More generally, we demonstrate how a large dataset, incorporating differing tag parameters, can be analysed to define activity budgets and subsequently address important ecological questions.
Russell , D J F , McClintock , B T , Matthiopoulos , J , Thompson , P , Thompson , D , Hammond , P S , Jones , E L , MacKenzie , M , Moss , S & McConnell , B J 2015 , ' Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of activity budgets in sympatric grey and harbour seals ' Oikos , vol 124 , no. 11 , pp. 1462-1472 . DOI: 10.1111/oik.01810
© 2015, Publisher / the Author(s). This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the author created, accepted version manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at onlinelibrary.wiley.com / https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/oik.01810
D. J. F. Russell was funded by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) as part of their Offshore Energy Strategic Environmental Assessment programme and by Scottish Government as part of their Marine Mammal Scientific Support Research Programme (MMSS/001/11). The telemetry tags and their deployment were funded by DECC, the Natural Environment Research Council, Scottish Government, Marine Scotland Science and The European Commission.
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