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dc.contributor.authorFuchs, Cornelius
dc.contributor.authorWill, Paul-Anton
dc.contributor.authorWieczorek, Martin
dc.contributor.authorGather, Malte Christian
dc.contributor.authorHofmann, Simone
dc.contributor.authorReineke, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorLeo, Karl
dc.contributor.authorScholz, Reinhard
dc.identifier.citationFuchs , C , Will , P-A , Wieczorek , M , Gather , M C , Hofmann , S , Reineke , S , Leo , K & Scholz , R 2015 , ' Enhanced light emission from top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by optimizing surface plasmon polariton losses ' , Physical Review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics , vol. 92 , no. 24 , 245306 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 241206824
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d8827c8d-6ea6-4dea-ac70-0e8b30ab122e
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84952333168
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4857-5562/work/47136509
dc.descriptionThis work was funded by the European Social Fund and the free state of Saxony through the OrganoMechanics project. Support from the excellence cluster “cfaed” is gratefully acknowledged.en
dc.description.abstractWe demonstrate enhanced light extraction for monochrome top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The enhancement by a factor of 1.2 compared to a reference sample is caused by the use of a hole transport layer (HTL) material possessing a low refractive index (∼1.52). The low refractive index reduces the in-plane wave vector of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excited at the interface between the bottom opaque metallic electrode (anode) and the HTL. The shift of the SPP dispersion relation decreases the power dissipated into lost evanescent excitations and thus increases the outcoupling efficiency, although the SPP remains constant in intensity. The proposed method is suitable for emitter materials having isotropic orientation of the transition dipole moments as well as anisotropic, preferentially horizontal orientation, resulting in comparable enhancement factors. Furthermore, for sufficiently low refractive indices of the HTL material, the SPP can be modeled as a propagating plane wave within other organic materials in the optical microcavity. Thus, by applying further extraction methods, such as microlenses or Bragg gratings, it would become feasible to obtain even higher enhancements of the light extraction.
dc.relation.ispartofPhysical Review. B, Condensed matter and materials physicsen
dc.rights©2015 American Physical Society. This work is made available online in accordance with the publisher’s policies. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.titleEnhanced light emission from top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by optimizing surface plasmon polariton lossesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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