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dc.contributor.authorWensveen, Paulus Jacobus
dc.contributor.authorvon Benda-Beckmann, Alexander M
dc.contributor.authorAinslie, Michael A
dc.contributor.authorLam, Frans-Peter A
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter H
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter L
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick J O
dc.identifier.citationWensveen , P J , von Benda-Beckmann , A M , Ainslie , M A , Lam , F-P A , Kvadsheim , P H , Tyack , P L & Miller , P J O 2015 , ' How effectively do horizontal and vertical response strategies of long-finned pilot whales reduce sound exposure from naval sonar? ' , Marine Environmental Research , vol. 106 , pp. 68-81 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887833
dc.descriptionPJW was supported with studentships of The Netherlands Ministry of Defence (grant number 032.30370/01.02) and the VSB Foundation (grant number VSB.08/228-E) and Ren e Dekeling is acknowledged for making funding possible. The 3S project was supported by the US Office of Naval Research, The Netherlands Ministry of Defence, Royal Norwegian Navy and Norwegian Ministry of Defence, and by World Wildlife Fund Norway. PLT received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) and their support is gratefully acknowledged.en
dc.description.abstractThe behaviour of a marine mammal near a noise source can modulate the sound exposure it receives. We demonstrate that two long-finned pilot whales both surfaced in synchrony with consecutive arrivals of multiple sonar pulses. We then assess the effect of surfacing and other behavioural response strategies on the received cumulative sound exposure levels and maximum sound pressure levels (SPLs) by modelling realistic spatiotemporal interactions of a pilot whale with an approaching source. Under the propagation conditions of our model, some response strategies observed in the wild were effective in reducing received levels (e.g. movement perpendicular to the source's line of approach), but others were not (e.g. switching from deep to shallow diving; synchronous surfacing after maximum SPLs). Our study exemplifies how simulations of source-whale interactions guided by detailed observational data can improve our understanding about motivations behind behaviour responses observed in the wild (e.g., reducing sound exposure, prey movement).
dc.relation.ispartofMarine Environmental Researchen
dc.subjectEnvironmental impacten
dc.subjectRisk assessmenten
dc.subjectIndividual-based modelsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleHow effectively do horizontal and vertical response strategies of long-finned pilot whales reduce sound exposure from naval sonar?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.grantnumberN00014 08 1 0984en

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