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dc.contributor.authorKarg, Katja
dc.contributor.authorSchmelz, Martin
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.contributor.authorTomasello, Michael
dc.identifier.citationKarg , K , Schmelz , M , Call , J & Tomasello , M 2016 , ' Differing views - can chimpanzees do level 2 perspective-taking? ' , Animal Cognition , vol. 19 , no. 3 , pp. 555-564 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 240524205
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 884bf173-487a-4949-be25-bb3877fd0291
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84957591319
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8597-8336/work/37477957
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000373743900011
dc.descriptionWe gratefully acknowledge financial support by the German National Academic Foundation.en
dc.description.abstractAlthough chimpanzees understand what others may see, it is unclear if they understand how others see things (Level 2 perspective-taking). We investigated whether chimpanzees can predict the behavior of a conspecific which is holding a mistaken perspective that differs from their own. The subject competed with a conspecific over two food sticks. While the subject could see that both were the same size, to the competitor one appeared bigger than the other. In a previously established game, the competitor chose one stick in private first and the subject chose thereafter, without knowing which of the sticks was gone. Chimpanzees and 6-year-old children chose the ‘riskier’ stick (that looked bigger to the competitor) significantly less in the game than in a nonsocial control. Children chose randomly in the control, thus showing Level 2 perspective-taking skills; in contrast, chimpanzees had a preference for the ‘riskier’ stick here, rendering it possible that they attributed their own preference to the competitor to predict her choice. We thus run a follow-up in which chimpanzees did not have a preference in the control. Now they also chose randomly in the game. We conclude that chimpanzees solved the task by attributing their own preference to the other, while children truly understood the other’s mistaken perspective.
dc.relation.ispartofAnimal Cognitionen
dc.rightsThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were madeen
dc.subjectPerspective takingen
dc.subjectFalse beliefen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleDiffering views - can chimpanzees do level 2 perspective-taking?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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