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dc.contributor.authorHarris, Catriona M
dc.contributor.authorSadykova, Dinara
dc.contributor.authorDe Ruiter, Stacy Lynn
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter
dc.contributor.authorLam, Frans-Peter
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Len
dc.identifier.citationHarris , C M , Sadykova , D , De Ruiter , S L , Tyack , P L , Miller , P , Kvadsheim , P , Lam , F-P & Thomas , L 2015 , ' Dose response severity functions for acoustic disturbance in cetaceans using recurrent event survival analysis ' , Ecosphere , vol. 6 , no. 11 , 236 , pp. 1-14 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 156503959
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: a7a3ec27-549b-4fed-88c1-e5a6334d2166
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84948968031
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7436-067X/work/29591660
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000367310600027
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9198-2414/work/60887688
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887940
dc.descriptionThis work was financially supported by the U. S. Office of Naval Research grant N00014‐12‐1‐0204, under the project “Multi‐study Ocean acoustics Human effects Analysis” (MOCHA). . L. Tyack received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) and their support is gratefully acknowledged. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. The case study data were provided by the 3S project, which was funded by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, the Norwegian Ministry of Defense, the Netherlands Ministry of Defense, and WWF Norway.en
dc.description.abstractBehavioral response studies (BRSs) aim to enhance our understanding of the behavior changes made by animals in response to specific exposure levels of different stimuli, often presented in an increasing dosage. Here, we focus on BRSs that aim to understand behavioral responses of free-ranging whales and dolphins to manmade acoustic signals (although the methods are applicable more generally). One desired outcome of these studies is dose-response functions relevant to different species, signals and contexts. We adapted and applied recurrent event survival analysis (Cox proportional hazard models) to data from the 3S BRS project, where multiple behavioral responses of different severities had been observed per experimental exposure and per individual based upon expert scoring. We included species, signal type, exposure number and behavioral state prior to exposure as potential covariates. The best model included all main effect terms, with the exception of exposure number, as well as two interaction terms. The interactions between signal and behavioral state, and between species and behavioral state highlighted that the sensitivity of animals to different signal types (a 6–7 kHz upsweep sonar signal [MFAS] or a 1–2 kHz upsweep sonar signal [LFAS]) depended on their behavioral state (feeding or nonfeeding), and this differed across species. Of the three species included in this analysis (sperm whale [Physeter macrocephalus], killer whale [Orcinus orca] and long-finned pilot whale [Globicephala melas]), killer whales were consistently the most likely to exhibit behavioral responses to naval sonar exposure. We conclude that recurrent event survival analysis provides an effective framework for fitting dose-response severity functions to data from behavioral response studies. It can provide outputs that can help government and industry to evaluate the potential impacts of anthropogenic sound production in the ocean.
dc.rightsCopyright © 2015 Harris et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.subjectBehavioral responseen
dc.subjectControlled exposure experimenten
dc.subjectCox proportional hazards modelen
dc.subjectGlobicephala melasen
dc.subjectOrcinus orcaen
dc.subjectPhyseter macrocephalusen
dc.subjectResponse intensityen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleDose response severity functions for acoustic disturbance in cetaceans using recurrent event survival analysisen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Statisticsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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