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dc.contributor.authorDritschel, David Gerard
dc.contributor.authorMcKiver, William Joseph
dc.identifier.citationDritschel , D G & McKiver , W J 2015 , ' Effect of Prandtl's ration on balance in geophysical turbulence ' , Journal of Fluid Mechanics , vol. 777 , pp. 569-590 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 197512852
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c94432d7-0a78-4bef-975a-98bdb42a81fc
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84937680132
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000359643100025
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-6489-3395/work/64697755
dc.descriptionSupport for this research has come from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grant no. EP/H001794/1).en
dc.description.abstractThe fluid dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans are to a large extent controlled by the slow evolution of a scalar field called ‘potential vorticity’, with relatively fast motions such as inertia-gravity waves playing only a minor role. This state of affairs is commonly referred to as ‘balance’. Potential vorticity (PV) is a special scalar field which is materially conserved in the absence of diabatic effects and dissipation, effects which are generally weak in the atmosphere and oceans. Moreover, in a balanced flow, PV induces the entire fluid motion and its thermodynamic structure (Hoskins et al. 1985). While exact balance is generally not achievable, it is now well established that balance holds to a high degree of accuracy in rapidly rotating and strongly stratified flows. Such flows are characterised by both a small Rossby number, Ro ≡ |ζ|max/f, and a small Froude number, Fr ≡ |.h|max/N, where ζ and .h are the relative vertical and horizontal vorticity components, while f and N are the Coriolis and buoyancy frequencies. In fact, balance can even be a good approximation when Fr < ∼ Ro ∼ O(1). In this study, we examine how balance depends specifically on Prandtl’s ratio, f/N, in unforced freely-evolving turbulence. We examine a wide variety of turbulent flows, at a mature and complex stage of their evolution, making use of the fully non-hydrostatic equations under the Boussinesq and incompressible approximations. We perform numerical simulations at exceptionally high resolution in order to carefully assess the degree to which balance holds, and to determine when it breaks down. For this purpose, it proves most useful to employ an invariant, PV-based Rossby number ε, together with f/N. For a given ε, our key finding is that — for at least tens of characteristic vortex rotation periods — the flow is insensitive to f/N for all values for which the flow remains statically stable (typically f/N < ∼1). Only the vertical velocity varies in proportion to f/N, in line with quasi-geostrophic scaling for which Fr2 ≪ Ro ≪ 1. We also find that as ε increases toward unity, the maximum f/N attainable decreases toward 0. No statically stable flows occur for ε > ∼ 1. For all stable flows, balance is found to hold to a remarkably high degree: as measured by an energy norm, imbalance never exceeds more than a few percent of the balance, even in flows where Ro > 1. The vertical velocity w remains a tiny fraction of the horizontal velocity uh, even when w is dominantly balanced. Finally, typical vertical to horizontal scale ratios H/L remain close to f/N, as found previously in quasi-geostrophic turbulence for which Fr ∼ Ro ≪ 1.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Fluid Mechanicsen
dc.rights© 2015 Cambridge University Press. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectGeophysical and geological flowsen
dc.subjectGeostrophic turbulenceen
dc.subjectVortex dynamicsen
dc.subjectQA Mathematicsen
dc.titleEffect of Prandtl's ration on balance in geophysical turbulenceen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Applied Mathematicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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