Physical and orbital properties of Beta Pictoris b
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The intermediate-mass star Beta Pictoris is known to be surrounded by a structured edge-on debris disk within which a gas giant planet was discovered orbiting at 8-10 AU. The physical properties of Beta Pic b were previously inferred from broad- and narrow-band 0.9-4.8 microns photometry. We used commissioning data of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to obtain new astrometry and a low-resolution (R∼35-39) J-band (1.12-1.35 microns) spectrum of the planet. We find that the planet has passed the quadrature. We constrain its semi-major axis to ≤10 AU (90 % prob.) with a peak at 8.9+0.4/-0.6 AU. The joint fit of the planet astrometry and the most recent radial velocity measurements of the star yields a planet's dynamical mass lower then 20 MJup (greater than 96 % prob.). The extracted spectrum of Beta Pic b is similar to those of young L1-1.5/+1 dwarfs. We use the spectral type estimate to revise the planet luminosity to log(L/Lsun)=-3.90±0.07. The 0.9-4.8 microns photometry and spectrum are reproduced for T eff=1650±150 K and a log g lower than 4.7 dex by 12 grids of PHOENIX-based and LESIA atmospheric models. If we adopt the most recent system age estimate (21±4 Myr), the bolometric luminosity and the constraints on the dynamical mass of Beta Pic b are only reproduced by warm- and hot-start tracks with initial entropies Si greater than 10.5 kB/baryon. Such initial conditions may result from an inefficient accretion shock and/or a planetesimal density at formation higher than in the classical core accretion model. Considering a younger age for the system or a conservative formation time for Beta Pic b does not change these conclusions.
Bonnefoy , M , Marleau , G-D , Galicher , R , Beust , H , Lagrange , A-M , Baudino , J -L , Chauvin , G , Borgniet , S , Meunier , N , Rameau , J , Boccaletti , A , Cumming , A , Helling , C , Homeier , D , Allard , F & Delorme , P 2014 , ' Physical and orbital properties of Beta Pictoris b ' Astronomy & Astrophysics , vol 567 , L9 . DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424041
Astronomy & Astrophysics
© 2014. ESO
M.B., G.C., A.M.L., J.R., H.B., F.A., and D.H. acknowledge financial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) through project grant, ANR10- BLANC0504-01, ANR-07-BLAN-0221, ANR-2010-JCJC-0504-01, and ANR- 2010-JCJC-0501-01. ChH and DH highlight EU financial support under FP7 by starting grant. J.L.B. Ph.D is funded by the LabEx Exploration Spatiale des Environnements Planétaires (ESEP) # 2011-LABX-030.
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