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dc.contributor.authorZhou, Yuefang
dc.contributor.authorBlack, Rolf
dc.contributor.authorFreeman, Ruth
dc.contributor.authorHerron, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorHumphris, Gerald Michael
dc.contributor.authorMenzies, Rachel
dc.contributor.authorQuinn, Sandra
dc.contributor.authorScott, Lesley
dc.contributor.authorWaller, Annalu
dc.identifier.citationZhou , Y , Black , R , Freeman , R , Herron , D , Humphris , G M , Menzies , R , Quinn , S , Scott , L & Waller , A 2014 , ' Applying the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs : an exploratory study ' , Patient Education and Counseling , vol. 97 , no. 2 , pp. 180-187 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 139561152
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: b564af43-68eb-47cf-a1a2-33e5a11cc63e
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84908227299
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000344824800006
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4601-8834/work/64033865
dc.descriptionThis study was conducted as part of a larger collaborative study funded by the EPSRC, between the University of St Andrews and the University of Dundee.en
dc.description.abstractObjective The VR-CoDES has been previously applied in the dental context. However, we know little about how dental patients with intellectual disabilities (ID) and complex communication needs express their emotional distress during dental visits. This is the first study explored the applicability of the VR-CoDES to a dental context involving patients with ID. Methods Fourteen dental consultations were video recorded and coded using the VR-CoDES, assisted with the additional guidelines for the VR-CoDES in a dental context. Both inter- and intra-coder reliabilities were checked on the seven consultations where cues were observed. Results Sixteen cues (eight non-verbal) were identified within seven of the 14 consultations. Twenty responses were observed (12 reducing space) with four multiple responses. Cohen's Kappa were 0.76 (inter-coder) and 0.88 (intra-coder). Conclusion With the additional guidelines, cues and responses were reliably identified. Cue expression was exhibited by non-verbal expression of emotion with people with ID in the literature. Further guidance is needed to improve the coding accuracy on multiple providers’ responses and to investigate potential impacts of conflicting responses on patients. Practice implications The findings provided a useful initial step towards an ongoing exploration of how healthcare providers identify and manage emotional distress of patients with ID.
dc.relation.ispartofPatient Education and Counselingen
dc.rights© 2014. Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Patient Education and Counseling. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Patient Education and Counseling, 97, 2, November 2014 DOI
dc.subjectThe VR-CoDESen
dc.subjectDental patientsen
dc.subjectEmotional distressen
dc.subjectIntellectual disabilitiesen
dc.subjectR Medicineen
dc.titleApplying the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) in the dental context involving patients with complex communication needs : an exploratory studyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.WHO Collaborating Centre for International Child & Adolescent Health Policyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Health Psychologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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