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dc.contributor.authorSmet, Anna F.
dc.contributor.authorByrne, Richard William
dc.identifier.citationSmet , A F & Byrne , R W 2014 , ' African elephants ( Loxodonta africana ) recognize visual attention from face and body orientation ' , Biology Letters , vol. 10 , no. 7 , 20140428 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 130501633
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 69d84622-f368-49a6-a039-0f1eeee2ebdb
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84906071052
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9862-9373/work/60630569
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000339170900012
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 25013015
dc.descriptionThis work was funded by the School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews.en
dc.description.abstractHow do animals determine when others are able and disposed to receive their communicative signals? In particular, it is futile to make a silent gesture when the intended audience cannot see it. Some non-human primates use the head and body orientation of their audience to infer visual attentiveness when signalling, but whether species relying less on visual information use such cues when producing visual signals is unknown. Here, we test whether African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are sensitive to the visual perspective of a human experimenter. We examined whether the frequency of gestures of head and trunk, produced to request food, was influenced by indications of an experimenter's visual attention. Elephants signalled significantly more towards the experimenter when her face was oriented towards them, except when her body faced away from them. These results suggest that elephants understand the importance of visual attention for effective communication.
dc.relation.ispartofBiology Lettersen
dc.rights© 2014 Royal Society. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in the Biology Letters on 10 July 2014, available online:
dc.subjectPerspective takingen
dc.subjectAudience effecten
dc.subjectTheory of minden
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleAfrican elephants (Loxodonta africana) recognize visual attention from face and body orientationen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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