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dc.contributor.authorMacleod, Colin D.
dc.contributor.authorMacleod, Ross
dc.contributor.authorLearmonth, Jennifer A.
dc.contributor.authorCresswell, Will
dc.contributor.authorPierce, G.J.
dc.identifier.citationMacleod , C D , Macleod , R , Learmonth , J A , Cresswell , W & Pierce , G J 2014 , ' Predicting population-level risk effects of predation from the responses of individuals ' , Ecology , vol. 95 , no. 7 , pp. 2006-2015 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 118991883
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6ffa1f7a-7bf7-478b-91f5-8283fad5c244
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84904334650
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4684-7624/work/60426963
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000339470500027
dc.descriptionThis work formed part of the EU‐funded BIOCET project (Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in small cetaceans in European waters: transport pathways and impact on reproduction, EVK3‐2000‐00027). The UK marine mammal strandings program, funded by DEFRA as part of its commitment to the Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas, supported attendance at strandings and necropsies. R. MacLeod is supported by a Royal Society of Edinburgh Scottish Government Research Fellowship.en
dc.description.abstractFear of predation produces large effects on prey population dynamics through indirect risk effects that can cause even greater impacts than direct predation mortality. As yet, there is no general theoretical framework for predicting when and how these population risk effects will arise in specific prey populations, meaning there is often little consideration given to the key role predator risk effects can play in understanding conservation and wildlife management challenges. Here, we propose population predator risk effects can be predicted through an extension of individual risk trade-off theory and show for the first time that this is the case in a wild vertebrate system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the timing (in specific months of the year), occurrence (at low food availability), cause (reduction in individual energy reserves) and type (starvation mortality) of a population level predator risk effect can be successfully predicted from individual responses using a widely applicable theoretical framework (individual based risk trade-off theory). Our results suggest individually-based risk-trade-off frameworks could allow a wide range of population level predator risk effects to be predicted from existing ecological theory, which would enable risk effects to be more routinely integrated into consideration of population processes and in applied situations such as conservation.
dc.rightsCopyright 2014 by the Ecological Society of America. Predicting population level risk effects of predation from the responses of individuals Macleod, C. D., Macleod, R., Learmonth, J. A., Cresswell, W. & Pierce, G. J. 2014 In : Ecology. 95, p. 2006-2015en
dc.subjectBottlenose dolphin; Tursiops truncatesen
dc.subjectHarbor porpoise; Phocoena phocoenaen
dc.subjectIndirect effectsen
dc.subjectIndividual-based theoryen
dc.subjectLethal porpoise-dolphin interactonsen
dc.subjectMass-dependent predation risken
dc.subjectNonconsumptive effectsen
dc.subjectNonlethal predator effectsen
dc.subjectSandeel; Ammodytes marinusen
dc.subjectStarvation-predation risk trade-offen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titlePredicting population-level risk effects of predation from the responses of individualsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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