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dc.contributor.authorFitzRoy, Felix R
dc.contributor.authorNolan, Michael
dc.contributor.authorSteinhardt, Max
dc.contributor.authorUlph, David Tregear
dc.identifier.citationFitzRoy , F R , Nolan , M , Steinhardt , M & Ulph , D T 2014 , ' Testing the tunnel effect : comparison, age and happiness in UK and German panels ' , IZA Journal of European Labor Studies , vol. 3 , 24 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 181755807
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d041c364-5a89-492f-9ce0-dd0e916da252
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84983243537
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3171-1270/work/59464525
dc.description.abstractIn contrast to previous results combining all ages, we find positive effects of comparison income on happiness for the under 45s and negative effects for those over 45. In the UK, these coefficients are several times the magnitude of own income effects. In West Germany, they cancel out to give no effect of comparison income on life satisfaction in the whole sample when controlling for fixed effects, time-in-panel, and age-groupings. Pooled OLS estimation gives the usual negative comparison effect in the whole sample for both West Germany and the UK. The residual age-happiness relationship is hump-shaped in all three countries. Results are consistent with a simple life cycle model of relative income under uncertainty.
dc.relation.ispartofIZA Journal of European Labor Studiesen
dc.rights© 2014 FitzRoy et al.; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.en
dc.subjectSubjective life-satisfactionen
dc.subjectComparison incomeen
dc.subjectReference groupsen
dc.subjectHB Economic Theoryen
dc.subjectHD Industries. Land use. Laboren
dc.titleTesting the tunnel effect : comparison, age and happiness in UK and German panelsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Economics and Financeen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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