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dc.contributor.authorHurly, T. Andrew
dc.contributor.authorFox, Thomas A. O.
dc.contributor.authorZwueste, Danielle M.
dc.contributor.authorHealy, Susan D.
dc.identifier.citationHurly , T A , Fox , T A O , Zwueste , D M & Healy , S D 2014 , ' Wild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowers ' , Animal Cognition , vol. 17 , no. 5 , pp. 1157-1165 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 155013116
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 28abcb90-f462-4674-b4b5-14ca7ff731a5
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000340585100013
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85027935637
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8059-4480/work/60631313
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000340585100013
dc.descriptionFunding: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (TAH, TAOF, DMZ) and the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour (SDH).en
dc.description.abstractRats, birds or fish trained to find a reward in one corner of a small enclosure tend to learn the location of the reward using both nearby visual features and the geometric relationships of corners and walls. Because these studies are conducted under laboratory and thereby unnatural conditions, we sought to determine whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) learning a single reward location within a rectangular array of flowers would similarly employ both nearby visual landmarks and the geometric relationships of the array. Once subjects had learned the location of the reward, we used test probes in which one or two experimental landmarks were moved or removed in order to reveal how the birds remembered the reward location. The hummingbirds showed no evidence that they used the geometry of the rectangular array of flowers to remember the reward. Rather, they used our experimental landmarks, and possibly nearby, natural landmarks, to orient and navigate to the reward. We believe this to be the first test of the use of rectangular geometry by wild animals, and we recommend further studies be conducted in ecologically relevant conditions in order to help determine how and when animals form complex geometric representations of their local environments.
dc.relation.ispartofAnimal Cognitionen
dc.rights© 2014. Springer. The final publication is available at Springer via
dc.subjectSpatial memoryen
dc.subjectRufous hummingbirdsen
dc.subjectSpatial reorientationen
dc.subjectEnvironmental geometryen
dc.subjectMountain chickadeesen
dc.subjectAnimals useen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleWild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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