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dc.contributor.authorGardner, Andy
dc.identifier.citationGardner , A 2015 , ' The genetical theory of multilevel selection ' , Journal of Evolutionary Biology , vol. 28 , no. 2 , pp. 305-319 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 159358410
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 8e165b68-f70d-4a56-913f-d106d1134433
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: urn:5b1a5faa3767cd7dfa9d6b5cbafc23f2
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84925649983
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000351208800003
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 25475922
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council (grant number NE/K009524/1).en
dc.description.abstractThe theory of multilevel selection (MLS) is beset with conceptual difficulties. Although it is widely agreed that covariance between group trait and group fitness may arise in the natural world and drive a response to ‘group selection’, ambiguity exists over the precise meaning of group trait and group fitness and as to whether group selection should be defined according to changes in frequencies of different types of individual or different types of group. Moreover, the theory of MLS has failed to properly engage with the problem of class structure, which greatly limits its empirical application to, for example, social insects whose colonies are structured into separate age, sex, caste and ploidy classes. Here, I develop a genetical theory of MLS, to address these problems. I show that taking a genetical approach facilitates a decomposition of group‐level traits – including reproductive success – into the separate contributions made by each constituent individual, even in the context of so‐called emergence. However, I uncover a novel problem with the group‐oriented approach: in many scenarios, it may not be possible to express a meaningful covariance between trait and fitness at the level of the social group, because the group's constituents belong to separate, irreconcilable classes.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Evolutionary Biologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2014 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectClass structureen
dc.subjectEvolutionary geneticsen
dc.subjectGroup selectionen
dc.subjectNatural selectionen
dc.subjectPrice's theoremen
dc.subjectSocial evolutionen
dc.subjectSimpson's paradoxen
dc.subjectReproductive valueen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleThe genetical theory of multilevel selectionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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