Dust and gas mixtures with multiple grain species - a one-fluid approach
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We derive the single-fluid evolution equations describing a mixture made of a gas phase and an arbitrary number of dust phases, generalizing the approach developed by Laibe & Price. A generalization for continuous dust distributions as well as analytic approximations for strong drag regimes is also provided. This formalism lays the foundation for numerical simulations of dust populations in a wide range of astrophysical systems while avoiding limitations associated with a multiple-fluid treatment. The usefulness of the formalism is illustrated on a series of analytical problems, namely the DUSTYBOX, DUSTYSHOCK and DUSTYWAVE problems as well as the radial drift of grains and the streaming instability in protoplanetary discs. We find physical effects specific to the presence of several dust phases and multiple drag time-scales, including non-monotonic evolution of the differential velocity between phases and increased efficiency of the linear growth of the streaming instability. Interestingly, it is found that under certain conditions, large grains can migrate outwards in protoplanetary discs. This may explain the presence of small pebbles at several hundreds of astronomical units from their central star.
Laibe , G & Price , D J 2014 , ' Dust and gas mixtures with multiple grain species - a one-fluid approach ' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society , vol. 444 , no. 2 , pp. 1940-1956 . DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1367
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
This article has been accepted for publication in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ©: 2014 The Authors, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
DescriptionGL acknowledges funding from the European Research Council for the FP7 ERC advanced grant project ECOGAL. DJP is very grateful for funding via an ARC Future Fellowship, FT130100034, and Discovery Project grant DP130102078.
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