The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima
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Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific life history.
Chipman , A D , Ferrier , D E K , Brena , C , Qu , J , Hughes , D S T , Schröder , R , Torres-Oliva , M , Znassi , N , Jiang , H , Almeida , F C , Alonso , C R , Apostolou , Z , Aqrawi , P , Arthur , W , Barna , J C J , Blankenburg , K P , Brites , D , Capella-Gutiérrez , S , Coyle , M , Dearden , P K , Du Pasquier , L , Duncan , E J , Ebert , D , Eibner , C , Erikson , G , Evans , P D , Extavour , C G , Francisco , L , Gabaldón , T , Gillis , W J , Goodwin-Horn , E A , Green , J E , Griffiths-Jones , S , Grimmelikhuijzen , C J P , Gubbala , S , Guigó , R , Han , Y , Hauser , F , Havlak , P , Hayden , L , Helbing , S , Holder , M , Hui , J H L , Hunn , J P , Hunnekuhl , V S , Jackson , L , Javaid , M , Jhangiani , S N , Jiggins , F M , Jones , T E , Kaiser , T S , Kalra , D , Kenny , N J , Korchina , V , Kovar , C L , Kraus , F B , Lapraz , F , Lee , S L , Lv , J , Mandapat , C , Manning , G , Mariotti , M , Mata , R , Mathew , T , Neumann , T , Newsham , I , Ngo , D N , Ninova , M , Okwuonu , G , Ongeri , F , Palmer , W J , Patil , S , Patraquim , P , Pham , C , Pu , L-L , Putman , N H , Rabouille , C , Ramos , O M , Rhodes , A C , Robertson , H E , Robertson , H M , Ronshaugen , M , Rozas , J , Saada , N , Sánchez-Gracia , A , Scherer , S E , Schurko , A M , Siggens , K W , Simmons , D , Stief , A , Stolle , E , Telford , M J , Tessmar-Raible , K , Thornton , R , van der Zee , M , von Haeseler , A , Williams , J M , Willis , J H , Wu , Y , Zou , X , Lawson , D , Muzny , D M , Worley , K C , Gibbs , R A , Akam , M & Richards , S 2014 , ' The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima ' PLoS Biology , vol 12 , no. 11 , e1002005 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002005
© 2014. Chipman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This work was supported by the following grants: NHGRI U54 HG003273 to R.A.G.; EU Marie Curie ITN #215781 ‘‘Evonet’’ to M.A.; a Wellcome Trust Value in People (VIP) award to C.B., a Wellcome Trust graduate studentship WT089615MA to J.E.G., and a Wellcome Trust Investigator Award (098410/Z/12/Z) to C.R.A.; ‘‘Marine Rhythms of Life’’ of the University of Vienna, an FWF (http://www.fwf.ac.at/) START award (#AY0041321) and HFSP (http://www.hfsp.org/) research grant (#RGY0082/2010) to K.T-R; MFPL Vienna International PostDoctoral Program for Molecular Life Sciences (funded by Austrian Ministry of Science and Research and City of Vienna, Cultural Department - Science and Research) to T.K.; Direct Grant (4053034) of the Chinese University of Hong Kong to J.H.L.H.; NHGRI HG004164 to G.M.; Danish Research Agency (FNU), Carlsberg Foundation, and Lundbeck Foundation to C.J.P.G.; U.S. National Institutes of Health R01AI55624 to J.H.W.; Royal Society University Research fellowship to F.M.J.; P.D.E. was supported by the BBSRC via the Babraham Institute
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