The kepler-10 planetary system revisited by harps-n : A hot rocky world and a solid neptune-mass planet
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Kepler-10b was the first rocky planet detected by the Kepler satellite and confirmed with radial velocity follow-up observations from Keck-HIRES. The mass of the planet was measured with a precision of around 30%, which was insufficient to constrain models of its internal structure and composition in detail. In addition to Kepler-10b, a second planet transiting the same star with a period of 45 days was statistically validated, but the radial velocities were only good enough to set an upper limit of 20 M⊕ for the mass of Kepler-10c. To improve the precision on the mass for planet b, the HARPS-N Collaboration decided to observe Kepler-10 intensively with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on La Palma. In total, 148 high-quality radial-velocity measurements were obtained over two observing seasons. These new data allow us to improve the precision of the mass determination for Kepler-10b to 15%. With a mass of 3.33 ± 0.49 M⊕ and an updated radius of 1.47+0.03-0.02 R⊕, Kepler-10b has a density of 5.8 ± 0.8 g cm−3, very close to the value predicted by models with the same internal structure and composition as the Earth. We were also able to determine a mass for the 45-day period planet Kepler-10c, with an even better precision of 11%. With a mass of 17.2 ± 1.9 M⊕ and radius of 2.35+0.09-0.04 R⊕, Kepler-10c has a density of 7.1 ± 1.0 g cm−3. Kepler-10c appears to be the first strong evidence of a class of more massive solid planets with longer orbital periods.
Dumusque , X , Bonomo , A S , Haywood , R D , Malavolta , L , Ségransan , D , Buchhave , L A , Cameron , A C , Latham , D W , Molinari , E , Pepe , F , Udry , S , Charbonneau , D , Cosentino , R , Dressing , C D , Figueira , P , Fiorenzano , A F M , Gettel , S , Harutyunyan , A , Horne , K , Lopez-Morales , M , Lovis , C , Mayor , M , Micela , G , Motalebi , F , Nascimbeni , V , Phillips , D F , Piotto , G , Pollacco , D , Queloz , D , Rice , K , Sasselov , D , Sozzetti , A , Szentgyorgyi , A & Watson , C 2014 , ' The kepler-10 planetary system revisited by harps-n : A hot rocky world and a solid neptune-mass planet ' Astrophysical Journal , vol 789 , no. 2 . DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/154
© 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement No. 313014 (ETAEARTH). X. Dumusque would like to thank the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) for its support through an Early Postdoc Mobility fellowship. P. Figueira acknowledges support by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the Investigador FCT contract of reference IF/01037/2013 and POPH/FSE (EC) by FEDER funding through the program "Programa Operacional de Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE." R. D. Haywood acknowledges support from an STFC postgraduate research studentship. This publication was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.
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