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dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorAntunes, Ricardo Nuno
dc.contributor.authorWensveen, Paulus Jacobus
dc.contributor.authorSamarra, Filipa Isabel Pereira
dc.contributor.authorAlves, Ana Catarina De Carvalho
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter H.
dc.contributor.authorKleivane, Lars
dc.contributor.authorLam, Frans-Peter A.
dc.contributor.authorAinslie, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Len
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-07T14:31:01Z
dc.date.available2014-08-07T14:31:01Z
dc.date.issued2014-02-14
dc.identifier.citationMiller , P , Antunes , R N , Wensveen , P J , Samarra , F I P , Alves , A C D C , Tyack , P L , Kvadsheim , P H , Kleivane , L , Lam , F-P A , Ainslie , M A & Thomas , L 2014 , ' Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales ' , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , vol. 135 , no. 2 , pp. 975-993 . https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4861346en
dc.identifier.issn0001-4966
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 97125083
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 2adda7c8-01db-4228-b47b-23225c386d3b
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84900265167
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7436-067X/work/29591682
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000331846000050
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887819
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/5092
dc.descriptionThe authors acknowledge the support of the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) in the completion of this study. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.en
dc.description.abstractEight experimentally controlled exposures to 1−2 kHz or 6−7 kHz sonar signals were conducted with four killer whale groups. The source level and proximity of the source were increased during each exposure in order to reveal response thresholds. Detailed inspection of movements during each exposure session revealed sustained changes in speed and travel direction judged to be avoidance responses during six of eight sessions. Following methods developed for Phase-I clinical trials in human medicine, response thresholds ranging from 94 to 164 dB re 1 μPa received sound pressure level (SPL) were fitted to Bayesian dose-response functions. Thresholds did not consistently differ by sonar frequency or whether a group had previously been exposed, with a mean SPL response threshold of 142 ± 15 dB (mean ± s.d.). High levels of between- and within-individual variability were identified, indicating that thresholds depended upon other undefined contextual variables. The dose-response functions indicate that some killer whales started to avoid sonar at received SPL below thresholds assumed by the U.S. Navy. The predicted extent of habitat over which avoidance reactions occur depends upon whether whales responded to proximity or received SPL of the sonar or both, but was large enough to raise concerns about biological consequences to the whales.
dc.format.extent19
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of the Acoustical Society of Americaen
dc.rightsCopyright 2014. Acoustical Society of America. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the Acoustical Society of America. The following article appeared as Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales Miller, P., Antunes, R. N., Wensveen, P. J., Samarra, F. I. P., Alves, A. C. D. C., Tyack, P. L., Kvadsheim, P. H., Kleivane, L., Lam, F-P. A., Ainslie, M. A. & Thomas, L. Feb 2014 In : Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 135, 2, p. 975-993 and may be found at http://scitation.aip.org/content/asa/journal/jasa/135/2/10.1121/1.4861346en
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectV Naval Science (General)en
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectBDCen
dc.subjectR2Cen
dc.subject.lccQH301en
dc.subject.lccV1en
dc.subject.lccGCen
dc.titleDose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whalesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1121/1.4861346
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden


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