Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorAntunes, Ricardo Nuno
dc.contributor.authorWensveen, Paulus Jacobus
dc.contributor.authorSamarra, Filipa Isabel Pereira
dc.contributor.authorAlves, Ana Catarina De Carvalho
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter H.
dc.contributor.authorKleivane, Lars
dc.contributor.authorLam, Frans-Peter A.
dc.contributor.authorAinslie, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Len
dc.identifier.citationMiller , P , Antunes , R N , Wensveen , P J , Samarra , F I P , Alves , A C D C , Tyack , P L , Kvadsheim , P H , Kleivane , L , Lam , F-P A , Ainslie , M A & Thomas , L 2014 , ' Dose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whales ' , Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , vol. 135 , no. 2 , pp. 975-993 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7436-067X/work/29591682
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887819
dc.descriptionThe authors acknowledge the support of the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland) in the completion of this study. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions.en
dc.description.abstractEight experimentally controlled exposures to 1−2 kHz or 6−7 kHz sonar signals were conducted with four killer whale groups. The source level and proximity of the source were increased during each exposure in order to reveal response thresholds. Detailed inspection of movements during each exposure session revealed sustained changes in speed and travel direction judged to be avoidance responses during six of eight sessions. Following methods developed for Phase-I clinical trials in human medicine, response thresholds ranging from 94 to 164 dB re 1 μPa received sound pressure level (SPL) were fitted to Bayesian dose-response functions. Thresholds did not consistently differ by sonar frequency or whether a group had previously been exposed, with a mean SPL response threshold of 142 ± 15 dB (mean ± s.d.). High levels of between- and within-individual variability were identified, indicating that thresholds depended upon other undefined contextual variables. The dose-response functions indicate that some killer whales started to avoid sonar at received SPL below thresholds assumed by the U.S. Navy. The predicted extent of habitat over which avoidance reactions occur depends upon whether whales responded to proximity or received SPL of the sonar or both, but was large enough to raise concerns about biological consequences to the whales.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of the Acoustical Society of Americaen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectV Naval Science (General)en
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleDose-response relationships for the onset of avoidance of sonar by free-ranging killer whalesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.grantnumberN00014 08 1 0984en

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record