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dc.contributor.authorFeng, Xiaoqi
dc.contributor.authorAstell-Burt, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorKolt, Gregory S.
dc.identifier.citationFeng , X , Astell-Burt , T & Kolt , G S 2013 , ' Do social interactions explain ethnic differences in psychological distress and the protective effect of local ethnic density? A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australia ' , BMJ Open , vol. 3 , no. 5 , 002713 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 134142895
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 95675c21-bb36-4ea0-ba42-83fb07d6dd4e
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000330538300067
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84878440615
dc.description.abstractBackground: A frequently proposed, but under-researched hypothesis is that ethnic density benefits mental health through increasing social interactions. We examined this hypothesis in 226 487 adults from 19 ethnic groups aged 45 years and older in Australia. Methods: Multilevel logit regression was used to measure the association between ethnicity, social interactions, own-group ethnic density and scores of 22+ on the Kessler scale of psychological distress. Self-reported ancestry was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Measures of social interactions included a number of times in the past week were (i) spent with friends or family participants did not live with; (ii) talked to someone on the telephone; (iii) attended meetings of social groups and (iv) how many people could be relied upon outside their home, but within 1 h of travel. Per cent own-group ethnic density was measured at the Census Collection District scale. Results: Psychological distress was reported by 11% of Australians born in Australia. The risk of experiencing psychological distress varied among ethnic minorities and by country of birth (eg, 33% for the Lebanese born in Lebanon and 4% for the Swiss born in Switzerland). These differences remained after full adjustment. Social interactions varied between ethnic groups and were associated with lower psychological distress and ethnic density. Ethnic density was associated with reduced psychological distress for some groups. This association, however, was explained by individual and neighbourhood characteristics and not by social interactions. Conclusions: Social interactions are important correlates of mental health, but fully explain neither the ethnic differences in psychological distress nor the protective effect of own-group density.
dc.relation.ispartofBMJ Openen
dc.rightsCopyright © Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: and
dc.subjectScreening scalesen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleDo social interactions explain ethnic differences in psychological distress and the protective effect of local ethnic density? A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australiaen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography and Geosciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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