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dc.contributor.authorSato, Katsufumi
dc.contributor.authorAoki, Kagari
dc.contributor.authorWatanabe, Yuuki Y.
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick J. O.
dc.identifier.citationSato , K , Aoki , K , Watanabe , Y Y & Miller , P J O 2013 , ' Neutral buoyancy is optimal to minimize the cost of transport in horizontally swimming seals ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 3 , e2205 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 131110534
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6ea0964c-9bc6-47ea-910c-e875359e5f84
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000321816100004
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84880392536
dc.descriptionThis study was supported by National Environment Research Council grant NERC NE/c00311X/1, a Grant-in-Aid for Science Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (to K.S. and Y.Y.W.), a grant from Canon Foundation and program Bio-Logging Science of the University of Tokyo (UTBLS).en
dc.description.abstractFlying and terrestrial animals should spend energy to move while supporting their weight against gravity. On the other hand, supported by buoyancy, aquatic animals can minimize the energy cost for supporting their body weight and neutral buoyancy has been considered advantageous for aquatic animals. However, some studies suggested that aquatic animals might use non-neutral buoyancy for gliding and thereby save energy cost for locomotion. We manipulated the body density of seals using detachable weights and floats, and compared stroke efforts of horizontally swimming seals under natural conditions using animal-borne recorders. The results indicated that seals had smaller stroke efforts to swim a given speed when they were closer to neutral buoyancy. We conclude that neutral buoyancy is likely the best body density to minimize the cost of transport in horizontal swimming by seals.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2013 The authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit
dc.subjectEnergetic advantagesen
dc.subjectStroking patternsen
dc.subjectElephant sealsen
dc.subjectBody densityen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleNeutral buoyancy is optimal to minimize the cost of transport in horizontally swimming sealsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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