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dc.contributor.authorFahlman, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorKvadsheim, Petter
dc.identifier.citationFahlman , A , Tyack , P L , Miller , P & Kvadsheim , P 2014 , ' How man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whales ' , Frontiers in Physiology , vol. 5 , 13 , pp. 1-6 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 100695183
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d07270f4-d965-4e10-9692-de0cbf03c769
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000346781200001
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 24478724
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84893439874
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887925
dc.description.abstractRecent cetacean mass strandings in close temporal and spatial association with sonar activity has raised the concern that anthropogenic sound may harm breath-hold diving marine mammals. Necropsy results of the stranded whales have shown evidence of bubbles in the tissues, similar to those in human divers suffering from decompression sickness (DCS). It has been proposed that changes in behavior or physiological responses during diving could increase tissue and blood N2 levels, thereby increasing DCS risk. Dive data recorded from sperm, killer, long-finned pilot, Blainville's beaked and Cuvier's beaked whales before and during exposure to low- (1–2 kHz) and mid- (2–7 kHz) frequency active sonar were used to estimate the changes in blood and tissue N2 tension (PN2). Our objectives were to determine if differences in (1) dive behavior or (2) physiological responses to sonar are plausible risk factors for bubble formation. The theoretical estimates indicate that all species may experience high N2 levels. However, unexpectedly, deep diving generally result in higher end-dive PN2 as compared with shallow diving. In this focused review we focus on three possible explanations: (1) We revisit an old hypothesis that CO2, because of its much higher diffusivity, forms bubble precursors that continue to grow in N2 supersaturated tissues. Such a mechanism would be less dependent on the alveolar collapse depth but affected by elevated levels of CO2 following a burst of activity during sonar exposure. (2) During deep dives, a greater duration of time might be spent at depths where gas exchange continues as compared with shallow dives. The resulting elevated levels of N2 in deep diving whales might also make them more susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. (3) Extended duration of dives even at depths beyond where the alveoli collapse could result in slow continuous accumulation of N2 in the adipose tissues that eventually becomes a liability.
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Physiologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2014 Fahlman, Tyack, Miller and Kvadsheim. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This Document is Protected by copyright and was first published by Frontiers. All rights reserved. it is reproduced with permission.en
dc.subjectDiving physiologyen
dc.subjectQP Physiologyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleHow man-made interference might cause gas bubble emboli in deep diving whalesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorOffice of Naval Researchen
dc.contributor.sponsorNaval Facilities Engineeeringen
dc.contributor.sponsorEuropean Commissionen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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