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dc.contributor.authorZollinger, Sue Anne
dc.contributor.authorGoller, Franz
dc.contributor.authorBrumm, Henrik
dc.identifier.citationZollinger , S A , Goller , F & Brumm , H 2011 , ' Metabolic and respiratory costs of increasing song amplitude in zebra finches ' , PLoS One , vol. 6 , no. 9 , 23198 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 116767459
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6152a84c-7539-4318-a517-2d6c2c23113c
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000294802500010
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 80052525386
dc.description.abstractBird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure.
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Oneen
dc.rights© 2011 Zollinger et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectEnvironmental noiseen
dc.subjectTerritorial birden
dc.subjectVocal intensityen
dc.subjectUrban Noiseen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleMetabolic and respiratory costs of increasing song amplitude in zebra finchesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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