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dc.contributor.authorErbe, Christine
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Rob
dc.contributor.authorSandilands, Doug
dc.contributor.authorAshe, Erin
dc.identifier.citationErbe , C , Williams , R , Sandilands , D & Ashe , E 2014 , ' Identifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific region ' PLoS One , vol. 9 , no. 3 , 89820 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089820en
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 116748860
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: edcb2a2b-657f-4186-8553-6eb070d18007
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000332479400029
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84897142661
dc.descriptionRW was supported by a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (Project CONCEAL, FP7, PIIF-GA-2009-253407). These analyses were funded by a grant to RW and EA from Marisla Foundation.en
dc.description.abstractThe inshore, continental shelf waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada are busy with ship traffic. South coast waters are heavily trafficked by ships using the ports of Vancouver and Seattle. North coast waters are less busy, but expected to get busier based on proposals for container port and liquefied natural gas development and expansion. Abundance estimates and density surface maps are available for 10 commonly seen marine mammals, including northern resident killer whales, fin whales, humpback whales, and other species with at-risk status under Canadian legislation. Ship noise is the dominant anthropogenic contributor to the marine soundscape of BC, and it is chronic. Underwater noise is now being considered in habitat quality assessments in some countries and in marine spatial planning. We modeled the propagation of underwater noise from ships and weighted the received levels by species-specific audiograms. We overlaid the audiogram-weighted maps of ship audibility with animal density maps. The result is a series of so-called "hotspot'' maps of ship noise for all 10 marine mammal species, based on cumulative ship noise energy and average distribution in the boreal summer. South coast waters (Juan de Fuca and Haro Straits) are hotspots for all species that use the area, irrespective of their hearing sensitivity, simply due to ubiquitous ship traffic. Secondary hotspots were found on the central and north coasts (Johnstone Strait and the region around Prince Rupert). These maps can identify where anthropogenic noise is predicted to have above-average impact on species-specific habitat, and where mitigation measures may be most effective. This approach can guide effective mitigation without requiring fleet-wide modification in sites where no animals are present or where the area is used by species that are relatively insensitive to ship noise.en
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Oneen
dc.rights© 2014 Erbe et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectUnderwater hearing sensitivityen
dc.subjectDolphins tursiops-truncatusen
dc.subjectEvoked-potential audiometryen
dc.subjectPorpoise phocoena-phocoenaen
dc.subjectCumulative sound exposureen
dc.subjectSeals phoca-vitulinaen
dc.subjectWhales orcinus-orcaen
dc.subjectSignal durationen
dc.subjectTonal signalsen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleIdentifying modeled ship noise hotspots for marine mammals of Canada's Pacific regionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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