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dc.contributor.authorVan Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.
dc.contributor.authorCronin, Katherine A.
dc.contributor.authorSchutte, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.contributor.authorHaun, Daniel B. M.
dc.identifier.citationVan Leeuwen , E J C , Cronin , K A , Schutte , S , Call , J & Haun , D B M 2013 , ' Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Flexibly Adjust Their Behaviour in Order to Maximize Payoffs, Not to Conform to Majorities ' , PLoS ONE , vol. 8 , no. 11 , 80945 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 104080108
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: eca6719e-9e66-44ab-a157-4f42368c1a42
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000327652100056
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84894236681
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8597-8336/work/37477889
dc.description.abstractChimpanzees have been shown to be adept learners, both individually and socially. Yet, sometimes their conservative nature seems to hamper the flexible adoption of superior alternatives, even to the extent that they persist in using entirely ineffective strategies. In this study, we investigated chimpanzees' behavioural flexibility in two different conditions under which social animals have been predicted to abandon personal preferences and adopt alternative strategies: i) under influence of majority demonstrations (i.e. conformity), and ii) in the presence of superior reward contingencies (i.e. maximizing payoffs). Unlike previous nonhuman primate studies, this study disentangled the concept of conformity from the tendency to maintain one's first-learned strategy. Studying captive (n=16) and semi-wild (n=12) chimpanzees in two complementary exchange paradigms, we found that chimpanzees did not abandon their behaviour in order to match the majority, but instead remained faithful to their first-learned strategy (Study 1a and 1b). However, the chimpanzees' fidelity to their first-learned strategy was overridden by an experimental upgrade of the profitability of the alternative strategy (Study 2). We interpret our observations in terms of chimpanzees' relative weighing of behavioural options as a function of situation-specific trade-offs. More specifically, contrary to previous findings, chimpanzees in our study abandoned their familiar behaviour to maximize payoffs, but not to conform to a majority.
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS ONEen
dc.rights© 2013 Lueewen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.titleChimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Flexibly Adjust Their Behaviour in Order to Maximize Payoffs, Not to Conform to Majoritiesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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