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dc.contributor.authorTennie, Claudio
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.contributor.authorTomasello, Michael
dc.date.accessioned2014-04-25T10:01:04Z
dc.date.available2014-04-25T10:01:04Z
dc.date.issued2010-05-12
dc.identifier.citationTennie , C , Call , J & Tomasello , M 2010 , ' Evidence for Emulation in Chimpanzees in Social Settings Using the Floating Peanut Task ' PLoS One , vol. 5 , no. 5 , 10544 . DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010544en
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 104087943
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c247fe25-e309-4566-877c-b8bcdfa581ae
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000277563400002
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 77956289140
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/4610
dc.descriptionThe authors have no support or funding to report.en
dc.description.abstractBackground: It is still unclear which observational learning mechanisms underlie the transmission of difficult problem-solving skills in chimpanzees. In particular, two different mechanisms have been proposed: imitation and emulation. Previous studies have largely failed to control for social factors when these mechanisms were targeted. Methods: In an attempt to resolve the existing discrepancies, we adopted the 'floating peanut task', in which subjects need to spit water into a tube until it is sufficiently full for floating peanuts to be grasped. In a previous study only a few chimpanzees were able to invent the necessary solution (and they either did so in their first trials or never). Here we compared success levels in baseline tests with two experimental conditions that followed: 1) A full model condition to test whether social demonstrations would be effective, and 2) A social emulation control condition, in which a human experimenter poured water from a bottle into the tube, to test whether results information alone (present in both experimental conditions) would also induce successes. Crucially, we controlled for social factors in both experimental conditions. Both types of demonstrations significantly increased successful spitting, with no differences between demonstration types. We also found that younger subjects were more likely to succeed than older ones. Our analysis showed that mere order effects could not explain our results. Conclusion: The full demonstration condition (which potentially offers additional information to observers, in the form of actions), induced no more successes than the emulation condition. Hence, emulation learning could explain the success in both conditions. This finding has broad implications for the interpretation of chimpanzee traditions, for which emulation learning may perhaps suffice.en
dc.format.extent9en
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Oneen
dc.rights© 2010 Tennie et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectMONKEYS CEBUS-APELLAen
dc.subjectCHILDREN HOMO-SAPIENSen
dc.subjectNUT-CRACKING BEHAVIORen
dc.subjectPAN-TROGLODYTESen
dc.subjectTOOL USEen
dc.subjectIMITATIONen
dc.subjectGORILLASen
dc.subjectEVOLUTIONen
dc.subjectINFANTSen
dc.subjectCULTUREen
dc.titleEvidence for Emulation in Chimpanzees in Social Settings Using the Floating Peanut Tasken
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010544
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden


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