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dc.contributor.authorAshton, Nick
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Simon G.
dc.contributor.authorDe Groote, Isabelle
dc.contributor.authorDuffy, Sarah M.
dc.contributor.authorBates, Martin
dc.contributor.authorBates, C. Richard
dc.contributor.authorHoare, Peter
dc.contributor.authorLewis, Mark
dc.contributor.authorParfitt, Simon A.
dc.contributor.authorPeglar, Sylvia
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Craig
dc.contributor.authorStringer, Chris
dc.identifier.citationAshton , N , Lewis , S G , De Groote , I , Duffy , S M , Bates , M , Bates , C R , Hoare , P , Lewis , M , Parfitt , S A , Peglar , S , Williams , C & Stringer , C 2014 , ' Hominin footprints from Early Pleistocene deposits at Happisburgh, UK ' PLoS One , vol. 9 , no. 2 , e88329 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 107568081
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 794c2c21-542f-448b-87fd-6d132cfc2239
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:167979A27F34A28C728B6A40CD1D2053
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84895758867
dc.descriptionThe research was funded by the Calleva Foundation as part of the Pathways to Ancient Britain Project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.en
dc.description.abstractInvestigations at Happisburgh, UK, have revealed the oldest known hominin footprint surface outside Africa at between ca. 1 million and 0.78 million years ago. The site has long been recognised for the preservation of sediments containing Early Pleistocene fauna and flora, but since 2005 has also yielded humanly made flint artefacts, extending the record of human occupation of northern Europe by at least 350,000 years. The sediments consist of sands, gravels and laminated silts laid down by a large river within the upper reaches of its estuary. In May 2013 extensive areas of the laminated sediments were exposed on the foreshore. On the surface of one of the laminated silt horizons a series of hollows was revealed in an area of ca. 12 m2. The surface was recorded using multi-image photogrammetry which showed that the hollows are distinctly elongated and the majority fall within the range of juvenile to adult hominin foot sizes. In many cases the arch and front/back of the foot can be identified and in one case the impression of toes can be seen. Using foot length to stature ratios, the hominins are estimated to have been between ca. 0.93 and 1.73 m in height, suggestive of a group of mixed ages. The orientation of the prints indicates movement in a southerly direction on mud-flats along the river edge. Early Pleistocene human fossils are extremely rare in Europe, with no evidence from the UK. The only known species in western Europe of a similar age is Homo antecessor, whose fossil remains have been found at Atapuerca, Spain. The foot sizes and estimated stature of the hominins from Happisburgh fall within the range derived from the fossil evidence of Homo antecessor.
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Oneen
dc.rightsCopyright: © 2014 Ashton et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectEarly Pleistoceneen
dc.subjectHominin footprintsen
dc.subjectHomo antecessoren
dc.subjectMulti-image photogrammetryen
dc.titleHominin footprints from Early Pleistocene deposits at Happisburgh, UKen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Earth and Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Landscape Studiesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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