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dc.contributor.authorYano, Machiko
dc.contributor.authorShimadzu, Hideyasu
dc.contributor.authorEndo, Toshiki
dc.identifier.citationYano , M , Shimadzu , H & Endo , T 2014 , ' Modelling temperature effects on milk production : a study on Holstein cows at a Japanese farm ' , SpringerPlus , vol. 3 , 129 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 101864958
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 87e7996d-ad4d-476c-a2a7-eee1170952e4
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000358954600002
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84899568372
dc.description.abstractMilk yield and its composition vary according to individual cows as well as to a variety of different environment conditions, such as temperature. Previous studies suggest that heat exerts considerable negative effects on milk production and its composition, especially during summer months. We investigate the production and fat composition of milk from individual dairy cows and develop a modelling framework that investigates the effect of temperature by extending a traditional lactation curve model onto a more flexible statistical modelling framework, a generalised additive model (GAM). The GAM simultaneously copes with multiple different conditions (temperature, parity, days of lactation, etc.), and, importantly, their non-linear relationships. Our analysis of retrospective data suggests that individual cows respond differently to heat; cows producing relatively high quantities of milk tend to be particularly sensitive to heat. Our model also suggests that most dairy cows studied fall into three distinct cases that underpin the variation of the milk fat ratio by different mechanisms.
dc.rights© 2014 Yano et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectMilk productionen
dc.subjectMilk faten
dc.subjectHeat stressen
dc.subjectLactation curvesen
dc.subjectTest-day dataen
dc.titleModelling temperature effects on milk production : a study on Holstein cows at a Japanese farmen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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