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dc.contributor.authorPopham, Frank
dc.contributor.authorDibben, Christopher John Lloyd
dc.contributor.authorBambra, Clare
dc.identifier.citationPopham , F , Dibben , C J L & Bambra , C 2013 , ' Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries ' Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , vol. 67 , no. 5 , pp. 412-418 . DOI: 10.1136/jech-2012-201525en
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 44503303
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 673bf3fd-5913-4295-8e12-8b7f02dc3d2a
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: urn:5ab5793db9ec754b164c60882a6e3de6
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000316560300008
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84883054960
dc.description.abstractBackground: Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods: We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results: On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions : Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries.en
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Epidemiology and Community Healthen
dc.rights(c) The authors 2013. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: and
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.titleAre health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? : A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countriesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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