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dc.contributor.authorHolden, Matthew T. G.
dc.contributor.authorHeather, Zoe
dc.contributor.authorPaillot, Romain
dc.contributor.authorSteward, Karen F.
dc.contributor.authorWebb, Katy
dc.contributor.authorAinslie, Fern
dc.contributor.authorJourdan, Thibaud
dc.contributor.authorBason, Nathalie C.
dc.contributor.authorHolroyd, Nancy E.
dc.contributor.authorMungall, Karen
dc.contributor.authorQuail, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorSanders, Mandy
dc.contributor.authorSimmonds, Mark
dc.contributor.authorWilley, David
dc.contributor.authorBrooks, Karen
dc.contributor.authorAanensen, David M.
dc.contributor.authorSpratt, Brian G.
dc.contributor.authorJolley, Keith A.
dc.contributor.authorMaiden, Martin C. J.
dc.contributor.authorKehoe, Michael
dc.contributor.authorChanter, Neil
dc.contributor.authorBentley, Stephen D.
dc.contributor.authorRobinson, Carl
dc.contributor.authorMaskell, Duncan J.
dc.contributor.authorParkhill, Julian
dc.contributor.authorWaller, Andrew S.
dc.identifier.citationHolden , M T G , Heather , Z , Paillot , R , Steward , K F , Webb , K , Ainslie , F , Jourdan , T , Bason , N C , Holroyd , N E , Mungall , K , Quail , M A , Sanders , M , Simmonds , M , Willey , D , Brooks , K , Aanensen , D M , Spratt , B G , Jolley , K A , Maiden , M C J , Kehoe , M , Chanter , N , Bentley , S D , Robinson , C , Maskell , D J , Parkhill , J & Waller , A S 2009 , ' Genomic evidence for the evolution of Streptococcus equi : host restriction, increased virulence, and genetic exchange with human pathogens ' , PLoS Pathogens , vol. 5 , no. 3 , e1000346 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 74262919
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: c5ea6121-3a12-4cbc-b9f3-f2f2f8d15fe3
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000266216000026
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 63449097053
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4958-2166/work/60196480
dc.description.abstractThe continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus). These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A(2) toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci.
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Pathogensen
dc.rights© 2009 Holden et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectSEROTYPE M3 STRAINen
dc.titleGenomic evidence for the evolution of Streptococcus equi : host restriction, increased virulence, and genetic exchange with human pathogensen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Infection Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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