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dc.contributor.advisorWoolf, Alex
dc.contributor.advisorTaylor, Simon
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Ailig Peadar Morgan
dc.coverage.spatial690en_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-11-05T12:03:54Z
dc.date.available2013-11-05T12:03:54Z
dc.date.issued2013-11-30
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10023/4164
dc.description.abstractThis study has collected and analysed a database of place-names containing potential ethnonymic elements. Competing models of ethnicity are investigated and applied to names about which there is reasonable confidence. A number of motivations for employment of ethnonyms in place-names emerge. Ongoing interaction between ethnicities is marked by reference to domain or borderland, and occasional interaction by reference to resource or transit. More superficial interaction is expressed in names of commemorative, antiquarian or figurative motivation. The implications of the names for our understanding of the history of individual ethnicities are considered. Distribution of Walh-names has been extended north into Scotland; but reference may be to Romance-speaking feudal incomers, not the British. Briton-names are confirmed in Cumberland and are found on and beyond the fringes of the polity of Strathclyde. Dumbarton, however, is an antiquarian coining. Distribution of Cumbrian-names suggests that the south side of the Solway Firth was not securely under Cumbrian influence; but also that the ethnicity, expanding in the tenth century, was found from the Ayrshire coast to East Lothian, with the Saxon culture under pressure in the Southern Uplands. An ethnonym borrowed from British in the name Cumberland and the Lothian outlier of Cummercolstoun had either entered northern English dialect or was being employed by the Cumbrians themselves to coin these names in Old English. If the latter, such self-referential pronouncement in a language contact situation was from a position of status, in contrast to the ethnicism of the Gaels. Growing Gaelic self-awareness is manifested in early-modern domain demarcation and self-referential naming of routes across the cultural boundary. But by the nineteenth century cultural change came from within, with the impact felt most acutely in west-mainland and Hebridean Argyll, according to the toponymic evidence. Earlier interfaces between Gaelic and Scots are indicated on the east of the Firth of Clyde by the early fourteenth century, under the Sidlaws and in Buchan by the fifteenth, in Caithness and in Perthshire by the sixteenth. Earlier, Norse-speakers may have referred to Gaels in the hills of Kintyre. The border between Scotland and England was toponymically marked, but not until the modern era. In Carrick, Argyll and north and west of the Great Glen, Albanians were to be contrasted, not necessarily linguistically, from neighbouring Gaelic-speakers; Alba is probably to be equated with the ancient territory of Scotia. Early Scot-names, recorded from the twelfth century, similarly reflect expanding Scotian influence in Cumberland and Lothian. However, late instances refer to Gaelic-speakers. Most Eireannach-names refer to wedder goats rather than the ethnonym, but residual Gaelic-speakers in east Dumfriesshire are indicated by Erisch­-names at the end of the fifteenth century or later. Others west into Galloway suggest an earlier Irish immigration, probably as a consequence of normanisation and of engagement in Irish Sea politics. Other immigrants include French estate administrators, Flemish wool producers and English feudal subjects. The latter have long been discussed, but the relationship of the north-eastern Ingliston-names to mottes is rejected, and that of the south-western Ingleston-names is rather to former motte-hills with degraded fortifications. Most Dane-names are also antiquarian, attracted less by folk memory than by modern folklore. The Goill could also be summoned out of the past to explain defensive remains in particular. Antiquarianism in the eighteenth century onwards similarly ascribed many remains to the Picts and the Cruithnians, though in Shetland a long-standing supernatural association with the Picts may have been maintained. Ethnicities were invoked to personify past cultures, but ethnonyms also commemorate actual events, typified by Sasannach-names. These tend to recall dramatic, generally fatal, incidents, usually involving soldiers or sailors. Any figures of secular authority or hostile activity from outwith the community came to be considered Goill, but also agents of ecclesiastical authority or economic activity and passing travellers by land or sea. The label Goill, ostensibly providing 178 of the 652 probable ethnonymic database entries, is in most names no indication of ethnicity, culture or language. It had a medieval geographical reference, however, to Hebrideans, and did develop renewed, early-modern specificity in response to a vague concept of Scottish society outwith the Gaelic cultural domain. The study concludes by considering the forms of interaction between ethnicities and looking at the names as a set. It proposes classification of those recalled in the names as overlord, interloper or native.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of St Andrews
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/
dc.subjectAlarm-pointen_US
dc.subjectAlbaen_US
dc.subjectAlbanachen_US
dc.subjectAlbanianen_US
dc.subjectAlbannachen_US
dc.subjectAngelen_US
dc.subjectAntiquarian nameen_US
dc.subjectBorderland-nameen_US
dc.subjectBreatanen_US
dc.subjectBreatannachen_US
dc.subjectBretnachen_US
dc.subjectSasannachen_US
dc.subjectScotten_US
dc.subjectBretren_US
dc.subjectSaxeen_US
dc.subjectSaxonen_US
dc.subjectSaxren_US
dc.subjectSceotten_US
dc.subjectScoten_US
dc.subjectScotiaen_US
dc.subjectScotlanden_US
dc.subjectCommemorative nameen_US
dc.subjectSkotren_US
dc.subjectWelshen_US
dc.subjectCruithneachen_US
dc.subjectToponymen_US
dc.subjectTransit-nameen_US
dc.subjectWalhen_US
dc.subjectWalismanen_US
dc.subjectWarning-pointen_US
dc.subjectWatch-pointen_US
dc.subjectWelshmanen_US
dc.subjectDomain-nameen_US
dc.subjectDanmargachen_US
dc.subjectBriten_US
dc.subjectCruithnianen_US
dc.subjectDeneen_US
dc.subjectBritish languageen_US
dc.subjectBritonen_US
dc.subjectBritten_US
dc.subjectBrïttoen_US
dc.subjectBrïttonen_US
dc.subjectCoincidental nameen_US
dc.subjectCruithenen_US
dc.subjectCumberlanden_US
dc.subjectDanmhargachen_US
dc.subjectEnskr-maðren_US
dc.subjectCumbrianen_US
dc.subjectCumbroen_US
dc.subjectCumeren_US
dc.subjectDànachen_US
dc.subjectDanaren_US
dc.subjectDaneen_US
dc.subjectDanren_US
dc.subjectFindgallen_US
dc.subjectDubgallen_US
dc.subjectÉrennachen_US
dc.subjectFlamyngen_US
dc.subjectEireannachen_US
dc.subjectÈireannachen_US
dc.subjectEmicen_US
dc.subjectEngelen_US
dc.subjectEnglis-maðren_US
dc.subjectEnglishen_US
dc.subjectErischen_US
dc.subjectFrangcen_US
dc.subjectFranceisen_US
dc.subjectEnglishmanen_US
dc.subjectFlanrasachen_US
dc.subjectFrangachen_US
dc.subjectEthnicismen_US
dc.subjectEthnicityen_US
dc.subjectEthnonymen_US
dc.subjectEticen_US
dc.subjectExonymen_US
dc.subjectFigurative nameen_US
dc.subjectFlæmingren_US
dc.subjectFlemen_US
dc.subjectFranchmanen_US
dc.subjectGall-Britten_US
dc.subjectFlémendachen_US
dc.subjectFlemingen_US
dc.subjectFlemishen_US
dc.subjectFrakkien_US
dc.subjectFrancen_US
dc.subjectFrancaen_US
dc.subjectFrançoisen_US
dc.subjectInglistonen_US
dc.subjectFrangcachen_US
dc.subjectGall-Goídelen_US
dc.subjectÍrien_US
dc.subjectFrenchen_US
dc.subjectFrenchmanen_US
dc.subjectFroncaen_US
dc.subjectGaelen_US
dc.subjectGaelicen_US
dc.subjectGàidhealen_US
dc.subjectGallabhachen_US
dc.subjectPichten_US
dc.subjectPechten_US
dc.subjectGallen_US
dc.subjectIrischmanen_US
dc.subjectPettren_US
dc.subjectGoidelen_US
dc.subjectGoídelen_US
dc.subjectGreat Glenen_US
dc.subjectHebrideanen_US
dc.subjectInglestonen_US
dc.subjectInglismanen_US
dc.subjectÍreen_US
dc.subjectIrishen_US
dc.subjectPectusen_US
dc.subjectSaxen_US
dc.subjectIrishmanen_US
dc.subjectKumriren_US
dc.subjectMigrated nameen_US
dc.subjectMotteen_US
dc.subjectNorthumberlanden_US
dc.subjectPechen_US
dc.subjectPehten_US
dc.subjectScotianen_US
dc.subjectPicken_US
dc.subjectSaxaen_US
dc.subjectScotsen_US
dc.subjectPickieen_US
dc.subjectPicten_US
dc.subjectPictusen_US
dc.subjectPlace-nameen_US
dc.subjectResource-nameen_US
dc.subjectSachsen_US
dc.subjectSaxanachen_US
dc.subjectBretten_US
dc.subjectWelschemanen_US
dc.subject.lccDA869.M7
dc.subject.lcshNames, Ethnological--Scotlanden_US
dc.subject.lcshNames, Geographical--Scotlanden_US
dc.subject.lcshNames, Ethnological--Scottish Borders (England and Scotland)en_US
dc.subject.lcshNames, Geographical--Scottish Borders (England and Scotland)en_US
dc.titleEthnonyms in the place-names ­of Scotland and the Border counties of Englanden_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen_US
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.publisher.institutionThe University of St Andrewsen_US


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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
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