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dc.contributor.authorHall, Jeremy
dc.contributor.authorPhilip, Ruth C. M.
dc.contributor.authorMarwick, Katie
dc.contributor.authorWhalley, Heather C.
dc.contributor.authorRomaniuk, Liana
dc.contributor.authorMcIntosh, Andrew M.
dc.contributor.authorSantos, Isabel
dc.contributor.authorSprengelmeyer, Reiner
dc.contributor.authorJohnstone, Eve C.
dc.contributor.authorStanfield, Andrew C.
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Andy W.
dc.contributor.authorLawrie, Stephen M.
dc.identifier.citationHall , J , Philip , R C M , Marwick , K , Whalley , H C , Romaniuk , L , McIntosh , A M , Santos , I , Sprengelmeyer , R , Johnstone , E C , Stanfield , A C , Young , A W & Lawrie , S M 2012 , ' Social Cognition, the Male Brain and the Autism Spectrum ' , PLoS One , vol. 7 , no. 12 , e49033 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 61426646
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 04d8fadb-d5a8-4ebe-b3c8-c93ef0c8205c
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000313618800003
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84871566067
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3083-5995/work/64697284
dc.description.abstractBehavioral studies have shown that, at a population level, women perform better on tests of social cognition and empathy than men. Furthermore Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social functioning and empathy, occur more commonly in males than females. These findings have led to the hypothesis that differences in the functioning of the social brain between males and females contribute to the greater vulnerability of males to ASD and the suggestion that ASD may represent an extreme form of the male brain. Here we sought to investigate this hypothesis by determining: (i) whether males and females differ in social brain function, and (ii) whether any sex differences in social brain function are exaggerated in individuals with ASD. Using fMRI we show that males and females differ markedly in social brain function when making social decisions from faces (compared to simple sex judgements) especially when making decisions of an affective nature, with the greatest sex differences in social brain activation being in the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). We also demonstrate that this difference is exaggerated in individuals with ASD, who show an extreme male pattern of IFC function. These results show that males and females differ significantly in social brain function and support the view that sex differences in the social brain contribute to the greater vulnerability of males to ASDs.
dc.relation.ispartofPLoS Oneen
dc.rights© 2012 Hall et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectHigh functioning autismen
dc.subjectNormal sex differencesen
dc.subjectMirror neuron systemen
dc.subjectAsperger syndromeen
dc.subjectCortical thicknessen
dc.subjectHealthy individualsen
dc.subjectGender differencesen
dc.subjectMatter volumeen
dc.subjectGrey matteren
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleSocial Cognition, the Male Brain and the Autism Spectrumen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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