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dc.contributor.authorOdon, Valerie Marie Nathalie
dc.contributor.authorLuke, Garry Alec
dc.contributor.authorRoulston, Claire
dc.contributor.authorDe Felipe, Pablo
dc.contributor.authorRuan, Lin
dc.contributor.authorEscuin, Helena
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Jeremy
dc.contributor.authorRyan, Martin Denis
dc.contributor.authorSukhodub, Andriy
dc.identifier.citationOdon , V M N , Luke , G A , Roulston , C , De Felipe , P , Ruan , L , Escuin , H , Brown , J , Ryan , M D & Sukhodub , A 2013 , ' APE-type non-LTR retrotransposons of multicellular organisms encode virus-like 2A oligopeptide sequences, which mediate translational recoding during protein synthesis ' , Molecular Biology and Evolution , vol. 30 , no. 8 , pp. 1955-1965 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 63279085
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 78687072-298f-4dd0-b3a8-c3d5e450fba3
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000321820400019
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84884241035
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-0012-0614/work/47136063
dc.description.abstract2A oligopeptide sequences (“2As”) mediate a cotranslational recoding event termed “ribosome skipping.” Previously we demonstrated the activity of 2As (and “2A-like sequences”) within a wide range of animal RNA virus genomes and non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs) in the genomes of the unicellular organisms Trypanosoma brucei (Ingi) and T. cruzi (L1Tc). Here, we report the presence of 2A-like sequences in the genomes of a wide range of multicellular organisms and, as in the trypanosome genomes, within non-LTR retrotransposons (non-LTRs)—clustering in the Rex1, Crack, L2, L2A, and CR1 clades, in addition to Ingi. These 2A-like sequences were tested for translational recoding activity, and highly active sequences were found within the Rex1, L2, CR1, and Ingi clades. The presence of 2A-like sequences within non-LTRs may not only represent a method of controlling protein biogenesis but also shows some correlation with such apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease-type non-LTRs encoding one, rather than two, open reading frames (ORFs). Interestingly, such non-LTRs cluster with closely related elements lacking 2A-like recoding elements but retaining ORF1. Taken together, these observations suggest that acquisition of 2A-like translational recoding sequences may have played a role in the evolution of these elements.
dc.relation.ispartofMolecular Biology and Evolutionen
dc.rights© The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.comen
dc.subject2A-like sequencesen
dc.subjectTranslational recodingen
dc.subjectAPE-type non-LTRen
dc.subjectQH426 Geneticsen
dc.titleAPE-type non-LTR retrotransposons of multicellular organisms encode virus-like 2A oligopeptide sequences, which mediate translational recoding during protein synthesisen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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