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dc.contributor.authorDe Ruiter, Stacy Lynn
dc.contributor.authorSouthall, Brandon L.
dc.contributor.authorCalambokidis, John
dc.contributor.authorZimmer, Walter M. X.
dc.contributor.authorSadykova, Dinara
dc.contributor.authorFalcone, Erin A.
dc.contributor.authorFriedlaender, Ari S.
dc.contributor.authorJoseph, John E.
dc.contributor.authorMoretti, David
dc.contributor.authorSchorr, Gregory S.
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Len
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.identifier.citationDe Ruiter , S L , Southall , B L , Calambokidis , J , Zimmer , W M X , Sadykova , D , Falcone , E A , Friedlaender , A S , Joseph , J E , Moretti , D , Schorr , G S , Thomas , L & Tyack , P L 2013 , ' First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar ' , Biology Letters , vol. 9 , no. 4 , pp. 1-5 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 57868566
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 7877190c-cb09-40ad-8f1a-65e2d8a65497
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 84880832292
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7436-067X/work/29591691
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8409-4790/work/60887909
dc.description.abstractMost marine mammal­ strandings coincident with naval sonar exercises have involved Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). We recorded animal movement and acoustic data on two tagged Ziphius and obtained the first direct measurements of behavioural responses of this species to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar signals. Each recording included a 30-min playback (one 1.6-s simulated MFA sonar signal repeated every 25 s); one whale was also incidentally exposed to MFA sonar from distant naval exercises. Whales responded strongly to playbacks at low received levels (RLs; 89–127 dB re 1 µPa): after ceasing normal fluking and echolocation, they swam rapidly, silently away, extending both dive duration and subsequent non-foraging interval. Distant sonar exercises (78–106 dB re 1 µPa) did not elicit such responses, suggesting that context may moderate reactions. The observed responses to playback occurred at RLs well below current regulatory thresholds; equivalent responses to operational sonars could elevate stranding risk and reduce foraging efficiency.
dc.relation.ispartofBiology Lettersen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.subjectAcoustic disturbanceen
dc.subjectAvoidance responseen
dc.subjectAnthropogenic noiseen
dc.subjectMid-frequency active sonaren
dc.subjectZiphius cavirostrisen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleFirst direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonaren
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Bioacoustics groupen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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