Novel chiral wide bite angle ligands for asymmetric catalysis
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Achiral wide bite angle ligands have been shown to be highly active and to induce excellent chemo- and regioselectivities in many homogeneously catalyzed reactions. However, only a few examples of chiral wide bite angle ligands are known so far. A diphenyl ether backbone was selected to allow maximum synthetic versatility and potential for a modular approach to design and synthesize such chiral diphosphorus ligands. Three synthetic strategies have been explored in this thesis: i) introduction of chiral substituents in the ligand backbone, ii) the use of P-stereogenic donor atoms and iii) the synthesis of chiral mixed-donor ligands bearing chiral auxiliary groups on the phosphorus atoms. Functionalization of the 3,3’-positions of 2,2’-bis(diphenylphosphino)diphenyl ether by carboxylic acid or ether auxiliaries was achieved via straightforward four-step routes to generate a library of ligands that were tested in various catalytic reactions. In the Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of l,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate and cyclohexyl-2-enyl acetate with dimethyl malonate the enantioselectivity was found to depend on the size of the chiral auxiliary introduced within the diphenyl ether backbone and its proximity to the phosphorus donor groups and hence to the active metal centre. Two types of mixed donor bidentate diphosphorus ligands based on the diphenylether backbone have been established, i.e. phosphine-phosphite and phosphine-phosphonite derivatives. A small ligand library bearing different chiral auxiliaries was accomplished via straightforward syntheses that enable derivatization of the respective phosphite and phosphonite moieties in the final step. In the Rh-catalysed hydrogenation of several benchmark substrates high conversion and moderate to high enantioselectivities (up to 97% for dimethyl itaconate) were obtained. The enantioselectivity was influenced by the size of the ortho-substituent on the chiral auxiliary group of the phosphite or phosphonite fragment. Two modular synthetic approaches for the preparation of novel wide bite angle diphosphine ligands containing stereogenic P-atoms have been developed. Both protocols involved diphenylether as backbone and the chiral ephedrine based precursor (2R[subscript(P)],4S[subscript(C)],5R[subscript(C)])-oxazaphospholidine borane as initial auxiliary to induce chirality at phosphorus. Various novel diphosphines were isolated as highly enantioenriched compounds with dr-ratios up to 95:5.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
Embargo Date: Print and electronic copy restricted util 11th April 2015
Embargo Reason: Thesis restricted in accordance with University regulations
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