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Stephenetal2012EP10562572RednessEnhancesPerceivedAggression.pdf297.2 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Title: Redness enhances perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness in men's faces
Authors: Stephen, Ian D.
Oldham, Francesca H.
Perrett, David I.
Barton, Robert A.
Keywords: Attractiveness
BF Psychology
Issue Date: 2012
Citation: Stephen , I D , Oldham , F H , Perrett , D I & Barton , R A 2012 , ' Redness enhances perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness in men's faces ' Evolutionary Psychology , vol 10 , no. 3 , pp. 562-572 .
Abstract: In a range of non-human primate, bird and fish species, the intensity of red coloration in males is associated with social dominance, testosterone levels and mate selection. In humans too, skin redness is associated with health, but it is not known whether - as in non-human species - it is also associated with dominance and links to attractiveness have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we allow female participants to manipulate the CIELab a* value (red-green axis) of skin to maximize the perceived aggression, dominance and attractiveness of photographs of men's faces, and make two findings. First, participants increased a* (increasing redness) to enhance each attribute, suggesting that facial redness is perceived as conveying similar information about a male's qualities in humans as it does in non-human species. Second, there were significant differences between trial types: the highest levels of red were associated with aggression, an intermediate level with dominance, and the least with attractiveness. These differences may reflect a trade-off between the benefits of selecting a healthy, dominant partner and the negative consequences of aggression.
Version: Publisher PDF
Description: This work was supported by the BBSRC, Unilever Research and the ESRC.
Status: Peer reviewed
ISSN: 1474-7049
Type: Journal article
Rights: This is an open access article published in Evolutionary Psychology, available at
Appears in Collections:Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciences Research
Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution Research
Psychology & Neuroscience Research
University of St Andrews Research

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