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dc.contributor.advisorHarwood, John
dc.contributor.advisorMacKenzie, Monique Lea
dc.contributor.advisorDonovan, Carl
dc.contributor.authorMarshall, Laura
dc.description.abstractOver the past decades technological developments have both changed and increased human influence on the marine environment. We now have greater potential than ever before to introduce disturbance and deplete marine resources. Two of the issues currently under public scrutiny are the exploitation of fish stocks worldwide and levels of anthropogenic noise in the marine environment. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop novel analyses and simulations to provide additional insight into some of the challenges facing the marine ecosystem today. These methodologies will improve the management of these risks to marine ecosystems. This thesis first addresses the issue of competition between humans and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) for marine resources, providing compelling evidence that a substantial proportion of the sandeels consumed by grey seals in the North Sea are in fact H. lanceolatus, which is not commercially exploited, rather than the commercially important A. marinus. In addition, we present quantitative results regarding sources of bias when estimating the total biomass of sandeels consumed by grey seals. Secondly, we investigate spatially adaptive 2-dimensional smoothing to improve the prediction of both the presence and density of marine species, information that is often key in the management of marine ecosystems. Particularly, we demonstrate the benefits of such methods in the prediction of sandeel occurrence. Lastly this thesis provides a quantitative assessment of the protocols for real-time monitoring of marine mammal presence, which require that acoustic operations cease when an animal is detected within a certain distance (i.e. the "monitoring zone") of the sound source. We assess monitoring zones of different sizes with regards to their effectiveness in reducing the risks of temporary and permanent damage to the animals' hearing, and demonstrate that a monitoring zone of 2 km is generally recommendable.en_US
dc.publisherUniversity of St Andrews
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
dc.subjectMixture modelsen_US
dc.subjectComputer intensiveen_US
dc.subjectGrey sealsen_US
dc.subjectMarine mammalsen_US
dc.subjectGeneralised additive modelsen_US
dc.subjectZero inflated modelsen_US
dc.subjectAcoustic pollutionen_US
dc.subjectMonitoring zonesen_US
dc.subjectSpatial modellingen_US
dc.subject.lcshMarine ecosystem health--Statistical methodsen_US
dc.subject.lcshMarine ecosystem managementen_US
dc.subject.lcshGray seal--Fooden_US
dc.subject.lcshMarine animals--Countingen_US
dc.subject.lcshMarine mammals--Effect of noise onen_US
dc.titleStatistical developments for understanding anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystemsen_US
dc.contributor.sponsorNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)en_US
dc.contributor.sponsorBAE Systems Insyte Ltd.en_US
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.publisher.institutionThe University of St Andrewsen_US
dc.rights.embargodatePrint and electronic copy of Chapter 4 restricted until 5th June 2017en_US
dc.rights.embargoreasonThesis restricted in accordance with University regulationsen_US

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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
Except where otherwise noted within the work, this item's license for re-use is described as Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported