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dc.contributor.authorRoss, Laura
dc.contributor.authorDealey, Elizabeth J.
dc.contributor.authorBeukeboom, Leo W.
dc.contributor.authorShuker, David M.
dc.identifier.citationRoss , L , Dealey , E J , Beukeboom , L W & Shuker , D M 2011 , ' Temperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri ' , Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , vol. 65 , no. 5 , pp. 909-919 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 15956941
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: aece2fc7-2201-4356-b82d-1f960b0a4b7b
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000289567000005
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 79954989293
dc.description.abstractEnvironmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the offspring themselves, such that the conditions they find themselves in influence their contribution to parental fitness. In both cases, parents might be selected to bias their sex ratio according to the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we consider sex allocation in the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, a species with an unusual genetic system in which paternal genes are lost from the germline in males. We test environmental factors that may influence either female condition directly (rearing temperature and food restriction) or that may be used as cues of the future environment (age at mating). Using cytological techniques to obtain primary sex ratios, we show that high temperature, older age at mating and starvation all affect sex allocation, resulting in female-biased sex ratios. However, the effect of temperature is rather weak, and food restriction appears to be strongly associated with reduced longevity and a truncation of the usual schedule of male and offspring production across a female's reproductive lifetime. Instead, facultative sex allocation seems most convincingly affected by age at mating, supporting previous work that suggests that social interactions experienced by adult P. citri females are used when allocating sex. Our results highlight that, even within one species, different aspects of the environment may have conflicting effects on sex allocation.
dc.relation.ispartofBehavioral Ecology and Sociobiologyen
dc.rights(c)The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.en
dc.subjectSex allocationen
dc.subjectSex determinationen
dc.subjectMaternal conditionen
dc.subjectLocal resource competitionen
dc.subjectFacultative heterochromatizationen
dc.subjectRatio adjustmenten
dc.subjectScale insectsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleTemperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citrien
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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