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dc.contributor.authorGalloway-Sprietsma, Maria
dc.contributor.authorBae, Jaehan
dc.contributor.authorTeague, Richard
dc.contributor.authorBenisty, Myriam
dc.contributor.authorFacchini, Stefano
dc.contributor.authorAikawa, Yuri
dc.contributor.authorAlarcón, Felipe
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, Sean M.
dc.contributor.authorBergin, Edwin
dc.contributor.authorCataldi, Gianni
dc.contributor.authorCleeves, L. Ilsedore
dc.contributor.authorCzekala, Ian
dc.contributor.authorGuzmán, Viviana V.
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Jane
dc.contributor.authorLaw, Charles J.
dc.contributor.authorLe Gal, Romane
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Yao
dc.contributor.authorLong, Feng
dc.contributor.authorMénard, François
dc.contributor.authorÖberg, Karin I.
dc.contributor.authorWalsh, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorWilner, David J.
dc.identifier.citationGalloway-Sprietsma , M , Bae , J , Teague , R , Benisty , M , Facchini , S , Aikawa , Y , Alarcón , F , Andrews , S M , Bergin , E , Cataldi , G , Cleeves , L I , Czekala , I , Guzmán , V V , Huang , J , Law , C J , Le Gal , R , Liu , Y , Long , F , Ménard , F , Öberg , K I , Walsh , C & Wilner , D J 2023 , ' Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). Complex kinematics in the AS 209 disk induced by a forming planet and disk winds ' , Astrophysical Journal , vol. 950 , no. 2 , 147 .
dc.identifier.otherBibCode: 2023arXiv230403665G
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1483-8811/work/155626094
dc.descriptionFunding: This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unionʼs Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (PROTOPLANETS, grant agreement No. 101002188). C.W. acknowledges financial support from the University of Leeds, the Science and Technology Facilities Council, and UK Research and Innovation (grant Nos. ST/T000287/1 and MR/T040726/1).en
dc.description.abstractWe study the kinematics of the AS 209 disk using the J = 2–1 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. We derive the radial, azimuthal, and vertical velocity of the gas, taking into account the lowered emission surface near the annular gap at ≃1 .″ 7 (200 au) within which a candidate circumplanetary-disk-hosting planet has been reported previously. In 12CO and 13CO, we find a coherent upward flow arising from the gap. The upward gas flow is as fast as 150 m s−1 in the regions traced by 12CO emission, which corresponds to about 50% of the local sound speed or 6% of the local Keplerian speed. Such an upward gas flow is difficult to reconcile with an embedded planet alone. Instead, we propose that magnetically driven winds via ambipolar diffusion are triggered by the low gas density within the planet-carved gap, dominating the kinematics of the gap region. We estimate the ambipolar Elsässer number, Am, using the HCO+ column density as a proxy for ion density and find that Am is ∼0.1 at the radial location of the upward flow. This value is broadly consistent with the value at which numerical simulations find that ambipolar diffusion drives strong winds. We hypothesize that the activation of magnetically driven winds in a planet-carved gap can control the growth of the embedded planet. We provide a scaling relationship that describes the wind-regulated terminal mass: adopting parameters relevant to 100 au from a solar-mass star, we find that the wind-regulated terminal mass is about one Jupiter mass, which may help explain the dearth of directly imaged super-Jovian-mass planets.
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journalen
dc.subjectPlanet formationen
dc.subjectProtoplanetary disksen
dc.subjectRadio interferometryen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.titleMolecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). Complex kinematics in the AS 209 disk induced by a forming planet and disk windsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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