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dc.contributor.authorFreymann, Elodie
dc.contributor.authord'Oliveira Coelho, João
dc.contributor.authorHobaiter, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorHuffman, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorMuhumuza, Geresomu
dc.contributor.authorZuberbühler, Klaus
dc.contributor.authorCarvalho, Susana
dc.identifier.citationFreymann , E , d'Oliveira Coelho , J , Hobaiter , C , Huffman , M A , Muhumuza , G , Zuberbühler , K & Carvalho , S 2024 , ' Applying collocation and APRIORI analyses to chimpanzee diets : methods for investigating nonrandom food combinations in primate self‐medication ' , American Journal of Primatology , vol. Early View , e23603 .
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 1720870
dc.identifier.otherpublisher-id: ajp23603
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8378-088X/work/152898827
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3893-0524/work/152898869
dc.descriptionAuthors would like to extend our gratitude to Vernon Reynolds, founder of BCFS, and the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland which provides core funding.en
dc.description.abstractIdentifying novel medicinal resources in chimpanzee diets has historically presented challenges, requiring extensive behavioral data collection and health monitoring, accompanied by expensive pharmacological analyses. When putative therapeutic self‐medicative behaviors are observed, these events are often considered isolated occurrences, with little attention paid to other resources ingested in combination. For chimpanzees, medicinal resource combinations could play an important role in maintaining well‐being by tackling different symptoms of an illness, chemically strengthening efficacy of a treatment, or providing prophylactic compounds that prevent future ailments. We call this concept the self‐medicative resource combination hypothesis. However, a dearth of methodological approaches for holistically investigating primate feeding ecology has limited our ability to identify nonrandom resource combinations and explore potential synergistic relationships between medicinal resource candidates. Here we present two analytical tools that test such a hypothesis and demonstrate these approaches on feeding data from the Sonso chimpanzee community in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Using 4 months of data, we establish that both collocation and APRIORI analyses are effective exploratory tools for identifying binary combinations, and that APRIORI is effective for multi‐item rule associations. We then compare outputs from both methods, finding up to 60% agreement, and propose APRIORI as more effective for studies requiring control over confidence intervals and those investigating nonrandom associations between more than two resources. These analytical tools, which can be extrapolated across the animal kingdom, can provide a cost‐effective and efficient method for targeting resources for further pharmacological investigation, potentially aiding in the discovery of novel medicines.
dc.relation.ispartofAmerican Journal of Primatologyen
dc.subjectFeeding ecologyen
dc.subjectFood combinationsen
dc.subjectPan troglodytesen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleApplying collocation and APRIORI analyses to chimpanzee diets : methods for investigating nonrandom food combinations in primate self‐medicationen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Organic Semiconductor Centreen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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