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dc.contributor.authorLaw, Charles J.
dc.contributor.authorTeague, Richard
dc.contributor.authorLoomis, Ryan A.
dc.contributor.authorBae, Jaehan
dc.contributor.authorÖberg, Karin I.
dc.contributor.authorCzekala, Ian
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, Sean M.
dc.contributor.authorAikawa, Yuri
dc.contributor.authorAlarcón, Felipe
dc.contributor.authorBergin, Edwin A.
dc.contributor.authorBergner, Jennifer B.
dc.contributor.authorBooth, Alice S.
dc.contributor.authorBosman, Arthur D.
dc.contributor.authorCalahan, Jenny K.
dc.contributor.authorCataldi, Gianni
dc.contributor.authorCleeves, L. Ilsedore
dc.contributor.authorFuruya, Kenji
dc.contributor.authorGuzmán, Viviana V.
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Jane
dc.contributor.authorIlee, John D.
dc.contributor.authorLe Gal, Romane
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Yao
dc.contributor.authorLong, Feng
dc.contributor.authorMénard, François
dc.contributor.authorNomura, Hideko
dc.contributor.authorPérez, Laura M.
dc.contributor.authorQi, Chunhua
dc.contributor.authorSchwarz, Kamber R.
dc.contributor.authorSoto, Daniela
dc.contributor.authorTsukagoshi, Takashi
dc.contributor.authorYamato, Yoshihide
dc.contributor.authorvan't Hoff, Merel L. R.
dc.contributor.authorWalsh, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorWilner, David J.
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Ke
dc.identifier.citationLaw , C J , Teague , R , Loomis , R A , Bae , J , Öberg , K I , Czekala , I , Andrews , S M , Aikawa , Y , Alarcón , F , Bergin , E A , Bergner , J B , Booth , A S , Bosman , A D , Calahan , J K , Cataldi , G , Cleeves , L I , Furuya , K , Guzmán , V V , Huang , J , Ilee , J D , Le Gal , R , Liu , Y , Long , F , Ménard , F , Nomura , H , Pérez , L M , Qi , C , Schwarz , K R , Soto , D , Tsukagoshi , T , Yamato , Y , van't Hoff , M L R , Walsh , C , Wilner , D J & Zhang , K 2021 , ' Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). IV. Emission surfaces and vertical distribution of molecules ' , Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series , vol. 257 , no. 1 , 4 .
dc.identifier.otherBibCode: 2021ApJS..257....4L
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1483-8811/work/146464264
dc.descriptionFunding: I.C. was supported by NASA through the NASA Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51405.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. C.W. acknowledges financial support from the University of Leeds, STFC, and UKRI (grant Nos. ST/R000549/1, ST/T000287/1, MR/T040726/1).en
dc.description.abstractThe Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) Large Program provides a unique opportunity to study the vertical distribution of gas, chemistry, and temperature in the protoplanetary disks around IM Lup, GM Aur, AS 209, HD 163296, and MWC 480. By using the asymmetry of molecular line emission relative to the disk major axis, we infer the emission height (z) above the midplane as a function of radius (r). Using this method, we measure emitting surfaces for a suite of CO isotopologues, HCN, and C2H. We find that 12CO emission traces the most elevated regions with z/r ∼< 0.3 , while emission from the less abundant 13CO and C18O probes deeper into the disk at altitudes of z/r ~< 0.2 . C2H and HCN have lower opacities and signal-to-noise ratios, making surface fitting more difficult, and could only be reliably constrained in AS 209, HD 163296, and MWC 480, with z/r ~< 0.1 , i.e., relatively close to the planet-forming midplanes. We determine peak brightness temperatures of the optically thick CO isotopologues and use these to trace 2D disk temperature structures. Several CO temperature profiles and emission surfaces show dips in temperature or vertical height, some of which are associated with gaps and rings in line and/or continuum emission. These substructures may be due to local changes in CO column density, gas surface density, or gas temperatures, and detailed thermochemical models are necessary to better constrain their origins and relate the chemical compositions of elevated disk layers with those of planet-forming material in disk midplanes. This paper is part of the MAPS special issue of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement.
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journal Supplement Seriesen
dc.subjectProtoplanetary disksen
dc.subjectInterstellar moleculesen
dc.subjectHigh angular resolutionen
dc.subjectCircumstellar disksen
dc.subjectPlanet formationen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleMolecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). IV. Emission surfaces and vertical distribution of moleculesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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