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dc.contributor.authorLeón, Julián
dc.contributor.authorQuintero, Fredy
dc.contributor.authorZuberbühler, Klaus
dc.identifier.citationLeón , J , Quintero , F & Zuberbühler , K 2023 , ' Acquisition of predator knowledge in sooty mangabeys ' , Animal Behaviour , vol. 205 , pp. 1-14 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 293882440
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3b5bf53b-2301-497d-b0d1-7aba81d606e0
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 1332298
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85170416470
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8378-088X/work/142499018
dc.descriptionThis work was funded by the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) Evolving Language, Swiss National Science Foundation Agreement #51NF40_180888 (K.Z.), and the Swiss National Science Foundation project grant 31003A_166458: ‘Social learning in primate communication’ (K.Z.).en
dc.description.abstractHow do primates learn to communicate? An influential, but largely untested model proposes that primates go through a pruning process, guided by social learning, during which they increasingly restrict alarm calling from initially broad ranges of animals to a few dangerous predators. To test this model, we conducted an experiment with free-ranging sooty mangabeys, Cercocebus atys atys, in which we systematically exposed different age groups to models of dangerous vipers and nonvenomous colubrid snakes. We found that young juveniles perceived all snakes as dangerous and indiscriminately alarm called, although they had the longest response latencies. In contrast, adults showed antipredator behaviours faster to vipers than colubrids but never alarm called to the latter, unlike juveniles. Finally, all young and some older juveniles alternated their gaze between the snake models and other group members, suggesting they engaged in social referencing, that is, gazing at others to assess their reactions to external events. Our study provides a systematic, empirical demonstration that, in nonhuman primates, predator learning starts with overgeneralization, followed by subsequent refinement via social learning during the juvenile phase.
dc.relation.ispartofAnimal Behaviouren
dc.rightsCopyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.titleAcquisition of predator knowledge in sooty mangabeysen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Organic Semiconductor Centreen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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