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dc.contributor.authorKong, Ming Sum
dc.contributor.authorCarr, Mary M.
dc.contributor.authorChong , Sin Wang
dc.identifier.citationKong , M S , Carr , M M & Chong , S W 2023 , ' Cross-linguistic influence in Hong Kong ESL learners’ acquisition of conjunctions ' , Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences , vol. 16 , pp. 515-539 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 292655816
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: cdf631b5-aa22-42f3-809f-203e0b5a2acf
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4519-0544/work/141228049
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0009-0001-8222-9022/work/141643552
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85169105551
dc.description.abstractLanguage transfer is one of the most significant aspects of cross-linguistic influence. It can be divided into two types: positive and negative, the beneficial and detrimental use of one language’s acquired characteristics in another. This study aims to investigate the L1 (Chinese) influence on Hong Kong ESL learners’ acquisition of conjunctions and whether the use of L1 has an impact on this influence. An online questionnaire combining questions about students’ English learning experience and a grammatical judgement task was sent to a government-funded secondary school in Hong Kong and completed by 79 students. Evidence of both positive and negative transfer from Chinese to English was found by testing six conjunctions or conjunction pairs: although…but, because…so, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, and despite. The results suggest that Chinese is likely to have an impact on students’ acquisition of conjunctions, and the use of Chinese in English classes can worsen negative transfer and boost positive transfer. The degree of transfer might increase when more Chinese is used in class. To alleviate the impact of Chinese transfer and to provide more effective L2 teaching, monitoring the use of L1 and regular evaluation might be useful. Teachers can also adjust the amount of Chinese used according to the students’ English proficiency level.
dc.relation.ispartofFudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciencesen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit ses/ by/4.0/.en
dc.subjectCross-linguistic influenceen
dc.subjectLanguage transferen
dc.subjectHong Kongen
dc.subjectESL leanersen
dc.subjectLC5201 Education extension. Adult education. Continuing educationen
dc.titleCross-linguistic influence in Hong Kong ESL learners’ acquisition of conjunctionsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. University of St Andrewsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. International Education Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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