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dc.contributor.authorZhao, Yujie
dc.contributor.authorEl Mkami, Hassane
dc.contributor.authorHunter, Robert Iain
dc.contributor.authorCasano, Gilles
dc.contributor.authorOuari, Olivier
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Graham Murray
dc.identifier.citationZhao , Y , El Mkami , H , Hunter , R I , Casano , G , Ouari , O & Smith , G M 2023 , ' Large cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarisation enhancements with kilowatt inverting chirped pulses at 94 GHz ' , Communications Chemistry , vol. 6 , 171 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 288778727
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 543a5fca-da46-402a-9660-c8e2055f5c7e
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-0552-5784/work/141643361
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-6578-7412/work/141643668
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-0415-9540/work/141644031
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5342-5702/work/141644065
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85168677730
dc.identifier.otherPubMedCentral: PMC10444895
dc.descriptionFunding: This work was supported by UK Research Council EPSRC research grant EP/R13705/1 and Wellcome Trust 099149/Z/12/Z.en
dc.description.abstractDynamic nuclear polarisation (DNP) is a process that transfers electron spin polarisation to nuclei by applying resonant microwave radiation, and has been widely used to improve the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Here we demonstrate new levels of performance for static cross-effect proton DNP using high peak power chirped inversion pulses at 94 GHz to create a strong polarisation gradient across the inhomogeneously broadened line of the mono-radical 4-amino TEMPO. Enhancements of up to 340 are achieved at an average power of a few hundred mW, with fast build-up times (3 s). Experiments are performed using a home-built wideband kW pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz, integrated with an NMR detection system. Simultaneous DNP and EPR characterisation of other mono-radicals and biradicals, as a function of temperature, leads to additional insights into limiting relaxation mechanisms and give further motivation for the development of wideband pulsed amplifiers for DNP at higher frequencies.
dc.relation.ispartofCommunications Chemistryen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleLarge cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarisation enhancements with kilowatt inverting chirped pulses at 94 GHzen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorThe Wellcome Trusten
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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